|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IHC-F, IF, E|
|Calculated MW||192785 Da|
|Purification||Purified IgG prepared by affinity chromatography on Protein A|
|Immunogen||Native, from human plasma|
|Shelf Life||18 months from date of despatch.|
|Other Names||Complement C4-A, Acidic complement C4, C3 and PZP-like alpha-2-macroglobulin domain-containing protein 2, Complement C4 beta chain, Complement C4-A alpha chain, C4a anaphylatoxin, C4b-A, C4d-A, Complement C4 gamma chain, C4A, CO4, CPAMD2|
|Target/Specificity||Mouse anti-Human C4d antibody, clone 10-11 recognizes the secreted protein complement component 4d (C4d). The presence of C4d in renal peritubular capillaries is a key indicator for acute antibody-mediated rejection [AMR] (Collinset al.1999.).C4d was accepted in 2003 into the Banff classification for identification of acute AMR (Racusenet al.2003). Mouse anti-Human C4d antibody, clone 10-11 is specific for C4d, a marker that can be used in the detection of acute AMR for kidney, heart, pancreas and lung allografts. C4d is regarded as a key marker of antibody-mediated cell injury and humoral rejection (Sacks and Chowdhury 2002).Complement 1 complex cleaves complement 4 (C4) to form C4b and C4a. C4b levels are strictly regulated. Single site cleavage of the C4b’s alpha chain by Factor I forms iC4b and blocks C3 convertase, inhibiting opsonization and activation of the classical pathway. This requires C4 binding protein or CR1 as a cofactor. iC4b is further degraded into C4d and C4c. C4b’s short half life means that C4d is present in serum at high enough concentrations to make it a useful marker for classical complement activation (Collinset al.1999).Mouse anti-Human C4d antibody, clone 10-11 is used to detect the biomarker C4d which has been described as a “footprint” of antibody mediated tissue rejection (Sacks and Chowdhury 2002). The internal thioester of C4b becomes exposed during cleavage to C4d and forms a covalent bond with the cell surface. The longer half-life of covalently bound C4d makes it a footprint of complement activation long after weakly bound antibodies have been cleared by the blood stream (Sacks and Chowdhury 2002).C4 has also been linked to susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (Yanget al.2004) and rheumatoid arthritis (Makindeet al.1989).|
|Preservative & Stabilisers||0.09% Sodium Azide (NaN3)|
|Storage||Store at +4℃ or at -20 ℃.|
|Precautions||Anti-Human C4d Antibody, clone 10-11 is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
Thousands of laboratories across the world have published research that depended on the performance of antibodies from Abgent to advance their research. Check out links to articles that cite our products in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category.
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
1. Mauiyyedi, S. et al. (2002) Acute humoral rejection in kidney transplantation: II. Morphology, immunopathology, and pathologic classification.J Am Soc Nephrol. 13 (3): 779-87. 2. Collins, A.B. et al. (1999) Complement activation in acute humoral renal allograft rejection: diagnostic significance of C4d deposits in peritubular capillaries.J Am Soc Nephrol. 10 (10): 2208-14. 3. Knechtle, S.J. et al. (2003) Campath-1H induction plus rapamycin monotherapy for renal transplantation: results of a pilot study.Am J Transplant. 3 (6): 722-30. 4. Mauiyyedi, S. et al. (2001) Chronic humoral rejection: identification of antibody-mediated chronic renal allograft rejection by C4d deposits in peritubular capillaries.J Am Soc Nephrol. 12 (3): 574-82. 5. Rogers, J. et al. (1992) Complement activation by beta-amyloid in Alzheimer disease.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 89 (21): 10016-20. 6. Troxell, M.L. et al. (2010) Pancreas allograft rejection: analysis of concurrent renal allograft biopsies and posttherapy follow-up biopsies.Transplantation. 90: 75-84. 7. Rowe P et al. (2013) Increased complement activation in human type 1 diabetes pancreata.Diabetes Care. 36 (11): 3815-7. 8. Johnson, R.K. et al. (2013) Acute tubular injury is an important component in type I acute antibody-mediated rejection.Transplant Proc. 45: 3262-8. 9. Roden, A.C. et al. (2015) Transbronchial Cryobiopsies in the Evaluation of Lung Allografts: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Risks?Arch Pathol Lab Med. Oct 21. [Epub ahead of print]1. Stoltzner, S.E. et al. (2000) Temporal accrual of complement proteins in amyloid plaques in Down's syndrome with Alzheimer's disease.Am J Pathol. 156 (2): 489-99.2. Sacks, S.H. & Chowdhury, P. (2002) Footprints of humoral rejection.Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 11 (6): 627-8.3. Racusen, L.C. et al. (2003) Antibody-mediated rejection criteria - an addition to the Banff 97 classification of renal allograft rejection.Am. J. Transplant. 3: 708-14.4. Yang, Y. et al. (2004) The intricate role of complement component C4 in human systemic lupus erythematosus.Curr. Dir. Autoimmun. 7: 98-132. Review.5. Makinde, V.A. et al. (1989) Reflection of disease mactivity in rheumatoid arthritis by indices of activation of the classical complement pathway.Ann. Rheum. Dis. 48: 302-6.
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