|Application ||WB, FC|
|Calculated MW||95680 Da|
|Other Names||ARMD10, CD284, TOLL, hToll, Toll-like receptor 4|
|Formulation||100 µg (0.2 mg/ml) Protein A affinity purified rabbit anti-TLR4 polyclonal antibody in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.2, containing 50% glycerol, 1% BSA, 0.02% thimerosal.|
|Handling||The antibody solution should be gently mixed before use.|
|Precautions||TLR4 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response (PubMed:9237759, PubMed:10835634). Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific (PubMed:20711192). Both M.tuberculosis HSP70 (dnaK) and HSP65 (groEL-2) act via this protein to stimulate NF-kappa-B expression (PubMed:15809303). In complex with TLR6, promotes sterile inflammation in monocytes/macrophages in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or amyloid-beta 42. In this context, the initial signal is provided by oxLDL- or amyloid-beta 42-binding to CD36. This event induces the formation of a heterodimer of TLR4 and TLR6, which is rapidly internalized and triggers inflammatory response, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine, via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion. Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-) (PubMed:23880187). Stimulation of monocytes in vitro with M.tuberculosis PstS1 induces p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation primarily via TLR2, but also partially via this receptor (PubMed:16622205).|
|Cellular Location||Cell membrane; Single- pass type I membrane protein Note=Upon complex formation with CD36 and TLR6, internalized through dynamin-dependent endocytosis|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes. Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) is a mammalain homologue of the Drosophila toll protein. The human TLR4 is a type-1 transmembrane protein containing 799 amino acid residues. The extracellular domain has leucine-rich repeats and the intracellular domain is similar to that of IL-1 receptor. TLR4 is a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In mice that are genetically tolerant to endotoxin, mutations have been identified in the intracellular domain of TLR4 that abolish LPS responsiveness. TLR4 uses a mechanism similar to that of the IL-1 receptor for signal transduction that leads to activation of NF-kB.
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