|Calculated MW||30756 Da|
|Homology||VDAC1: rat, mouse, human identical; VDAC2: rat, mouse, human - 9/11 amino acid residues identical; VDAC3: rat, mouse - 10/11 amino acid residues identical, human - 9/11 amino acid residues identical.|
|Other Names||Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1, VDAC-1, rVDAC1, Outer mitochondrial membrane protein porin 1, Vdac1|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide (C)DGKNVNAGGHK, corresponding to amino acid residues of 264-274 of rat voltage dependent anion channel 1 (Accession Q9Z2L0 ). Intracellular.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by amino acid analysis.|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.8 mg/ml.|
|Buffer After Reconstitution||Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is an outer mitochondrial membrane channel protein expressed in a ubiquitous manner as it is required for proper mitochondrial function. The three isoforms expressed in higher eukaryotes are highly conserved. VDAC1, VDAC2 and VDAC3 allow the entry and exit of most metabolites in and out of the mitochondria. The channel spans the membrane 19 times through antiparallel b strands1-3. Studies show that VDAC channels exhibit ion selectivity and are dependent on voltage. When in the open state, VDAC channels conduct mainly organic anions such as ATP, ADP and inorganic phosphate (Pi). In the closed state they still conduct ions, but much smaller and mostly inorganic like K+, Na+ and Ca2+ 4-5. However, while cells are metabolically active, VDAC channels are constitutively open in order to enable oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria to take place (through the passage of ADP across the membrane)4. VDAC channels are best described for their role in apoptosis. In the early stages of the signaling pathway, a proapoptotic factor, a member of the Bcl2 family is responsible for closing the channel thereby decreasing the release of ADP and ATP from the mitochondria4. VDAC channels are also implicated in the Warburg effect, which is typical to cancer cell. In such cells, hexokinase (the first enzyme in the glycolytic pathway responsible for phosphorylating glucose on C6 to yield glucose-6 phosphate) known to be up-regulated, binds to VDAC1 and takes up most of the ATP released by the channel in order to phosphorylate glucose. This action speeds up glycolysis if downstream reactions function properly. If however a glycolysis step is inhibited or down-regulated, glucose-6-phosphate builds up and consequently inhibits hexokinase, thereby restoring proper mitochondrial function4. VDAC is also detected in the plasma membrane of various cell types including lymphocytes, epithelial cells, and astrocytes6. The postulated roles for VDAC in the plasma membrane mainly involve the regulation of cellular ATP release and volume control7. VDAC have also been proposed to function as the plasma membrane maxi anion channels8. None of the isoforms are essential for viability. Knock out of VDAC3 in mice causes sterility in males9. That of VDAC1 and VDAC2 affects breathing10 and the individual knock out of VDAC1 causes embryonic death in mice in some cases11. Abgent is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of rat VDAC1. Anti-Pan Voltage Dependent Anion Channels antibody (#AG1003) can be used in western blot analysis. It has been designed to recognize VDAC1, VDAC2 and VDAC3 from human, rat and mouse samples
References 1. Hiller, S. et al. (2008) Science 321, 1206. 2. Bayrhuber, M. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 15370. 3. Ujwal, R. et al. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 17742. 4. Lemasters, J.J. and Holmuhamedov, E. (2006) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1762, 181. 5. Rostovtseva, T.K. et al. (2002) J. Membr. Biol. 187, 147. 6. De Pinto, V. et al. (2010) FEBS Lett. 584, 1793. 7. Okada, S.F. et al. (2004) J. Gen. Physiol. 124, 513. 8. Bahamonde, M.I. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 1614. 9. Sampson, M.J. et al. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 39206. 10. Wu, S. et al. (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1452, 68. 11. Sampson, M.J. et al. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 30482.
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