|Application ||WB, IHC, FC, ICC, LCI|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||41133 Da|
|Homology||Rat, mouse - identical.|
|Other Names||Proteinase-activated receptor 4, PAR-4, Coagulation factor II receptor-like 3, Thrombin receptor-like 3, F2RL3, PAR4|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide (C)HLRGQRWPFGEAA(S)R, corresponding to amino acid residues 136-150 of human PAR-4 (Accession Q96RI0 ). Cys 149 was replaced with Ser. 1st extracellular loop.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by amino acid analysis.|
|Application Details||Western blot analysis (WB): - Rat DRGs (1:1000) (see Chen, D. et al. (2013) in Product Citations). Immunohistochemistry (IH): - Rat DRG sections (1:200) (see Chen, D. et al. (2013) in Product Citations). Immunocytochemistry (IC): - Rat dissociated DRGs (1:200) (see Chen, D. et al. (2013) in Product Citations).|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.8 mg/ml.|
|Buffer After Reconstitution||Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.025% NaN3.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
Thousands of laboratories across the world have published research that depended on the performance of antibodies from Abgent to advance their research. Check out links to articles that cite our products in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category.
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Protease-activated receptor 4 (PAR-4) belongs to a family of four G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1 - 4) that are activated as a result of proteolytic cleavage by certain serine proteases, hence their name. In this novel modality of activation, a specific protease cleaves the PAR receptor within a defined sequence in its extracellular N-terminal domain. This results in the creation of a new N-terminal tethered ligand, which subsequently binds to a site in the second extracellular loop of the same receptor. This binding results in the coupling of the receptor to G proteins and in the activation of several signal transduction pathways.1-3 Different PARs are activated by different proteases. Hence, PAR-4 is activated by both thrombin and trypsin whereas PAR-1 and PAR-3 are activated only by thrombin and PAR-2 is activated only by trypsin.1-3 PAR-4 can be also cleaved and activated by other proteases such as cathepsin G. The intracellular signaling mechanisms mediated by PAR-4 activation are not completely elucidated but they involve calcium mobilization downstream of phospholipase Cβ through the Gαq pathway.1-3 Tissue distribution of PAR-4 is very broad with the highest expression levels found in lung, testis, pancreas and small intestine. In addition, PAR-4 expression was observed in platelets, megakaryocytes and leukocytes. Studies with platelets derived form PAR-4 knockout mice have established an essential role for PAR-4 in thrombin-induced platelet activation. PAR-4 is likely involved in other physiological functions such as regulation of gastrointestinal motility and regulation of vascular endothelial cell function.1-3
1. MacFarlane, S.R. et al. (2001) Pharmacol. Rev. 53, 245.
2. Hollenberg, M.D. and Compton, S.J. (2002) Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 203.
3. Ossovskaya, V.S. and Bunnett, N.W. (2004) Physiol. Rev. 84, 579.
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