Human Protease-activated Receptor-1 (extracellular) Antibody
Affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibody
|Application ||WB, IHC, FC, ICC, LCI|
|Calculated MW||47441 Da|
|Homology||Monkey - identical.|
|Other Names||Proteinase-activated receptor 1, PAR-1, Coagulation factor II receptor, Thrombin receptor, F2R, CF2R, PAR1, TR|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide (C)KNESGLTEYRLVSINK, corresponding to amino acid residues 61-76 of human PAR-1 (Accession P25116). Extracellular, N terminal.Unlikely to recognize mouse or rat samples.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by amino acid analysis.|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.8 mg/ml.|
|Buffer After Reconstitution||Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.025% NaN3.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1) belongs to a family of four G protein-coupled receptors (PAR-1 - 4) that are activated as a result of proteolytic cleavage by certain serine proteases, hence their name. In this novel modality of activation, a specific protease cleaves the PAR receptor within a defined sequence in its extracellular N-terminal domain. This results in the creation of a new N-terminal tethered ligand, which subsequently binds to a site in the second extracellular loop of the same receptor. This binding results in the coupling of the receptor to G proteins and in the activation of several signal transduction pathways.1-3 Different PARs are activated by different proteases. Hence, PAR-1 is activated by thrombin (and is in fact also known as the thrombin receptor), as are PAR-3 and PAR-4, while PAR-2 is activated by trypsin.1-3 PAR-1 can be also cleaved and activated by other proteases such as plasmin, Factor Xa, cathepsin G, and others. The intramolecular nature of PAR activation and the continuous presence of the tethered ligand that cannot diffuse away imply the existence of several mechanisms for the rapid termination of PAR signaling. Indeed, following receptor activation, there is rapid phosphorylation of the C-terminal end of the receptor, followed by receptor internalization and degradation. In addition, several proteases can cleave away the tethered ligand, thereby “disarming” the PAR.1-3 PAR-1 signals through several G proteins including Gaq, Gai, and Ga12/13, resulting in the activation of several transduction pathways including intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, Rho and Rac signaling, and MAPK activation.1-3 PAR-1 is expressed in several cell types including platelets, leukocytes, vascular endothelial cells, gastrointestinal epithelial cells, myocytes, and neurons. The best studied physiological function of PAR-1 is its involvement in the coagulation cascade. Thrombin, the preeminent ligand of PAR-1, activates the receptor on the surface of platelets, hence inducing platelet aggregation, granular secretion, and procoagulant activity. PAR-1 also plays a crucial role in vascular ontogenesis. Accordingly, PAR-1 knockout mice show bleeding at multiple sites and usually die at mid-gestation.1-3 PAR-1 also plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis. PAR-1 is upregulated in several human cancers as are several proteases such as plasmin and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) that act as PAR-1 ligands, thereby creating an autocrine loop. PAR-1 activation in cancer cells transmits mitogenic signals through the activation of the erk1/2 pathway and is involved in tumor spread via its pro-angiogenic activity.4 Abgent is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope at the extracellular N-terminus of the human protease-activated receptor-1. Anti-Human Protease-Activated Receptor-1 (extracellular) antibody (#AG1059) can be used in western blot analysis, immunohistochemical, immunocytochemical, and flow cytometry applications. It has been designed to recognize PAR-1 from human samples.
1. MacFarlane, S.R. et al. (2001) Pharmacol. Rev. 53, 245.
2. Hollenberg, M.D. and Compton, S.J. (2002) Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 203.
3. Ossovskaya, V.S. and Bunnett, N.W. (2004) Physiol. Rev. 84, 579.
4. Arora, P. et al. (2007) J. Cell Sci. 120, 921.
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