Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor alpha1 (extracellular) Antibody
Affinity purified polyclonal antibody
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||51867 Da|
|Homology||Human - identical; mouse - 12/13 amino acid residues identical.|
|Other Names||Acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha, Chrna1, Acra|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide EHETRLVAKLFKD(C), corresponding to amino acid residues 22-34 of rat nAChR־±1 (Accession P25108). Extracellular, N-terminus.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by amino acid analysis.|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.8 mg/ml.|
|Buffer After Reconstitution||Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.025% NaN3.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Acetylcholine, released by cholinergic neurons, activates two groups of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs); muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs) which belong to the superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs) which belong to the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. nAChRs also respond to nicotine, hence their name1. To date, 17 different but related subunits of nAChRs have been identified and cloned. They consist of α subunits (α1-10), which is responsible for the binding of ligands. In fact, this subunit includes a Cys-loop in the first extracellular domain that is required for agonist binding2. The other subunits responsible for making up the active receptor are the β (β1-4), γ, δ and ε subunits3. Structurally, all subunits have the following: a conserved large extracellular N-terminal domain, 3 conserved transmembrane domains, a variable cytoplasmic loop and a fourth transmembrane domain with a short extracellular C-terminal domain. An active nAChR is generally a heteropentamer (homopentamers also exist) of these various subunits organized around a central pore1. All α subunits are expressed in neuronal cells except for the α1 subunit which is specifically expressed in skeletal muscle. Indeed, two different nAChR structural entities with the following stoichiometry are observed in this tissue: (α1)2β1δγ in fetal muscle cells and (α1)2β1δε at mature neuromuscular synapses3. The α1 extracellular domain contains the main immunogenic region, a region against which a large fraction of autoantibodies against nAChR is directed in the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis (MG)4. This autoimmune disease is characterized by the malfunction of neuromuscular transmission as a result of nonfunctional nAChRs, leading to defective signaling at the neuromuscular junction5. Due to its central role in muscle contraction and autonomic nervous system, nAChRs have evolved to be important targets of toxins secreted by plants, insects and animals. One prominent toxin affecting α1, in addition to other subunits, is α-bungarotoxin (#B-100), a snake toxin which blocks nAChRs6. Abgent is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope located at the extracellular N-terminal domain of rat Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α1 (nAChRα1). Anti-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor α1 (extracellular) antibody (#AG1202) can be used in western blot analysis. It has been designed to recognize nAChRα1 from mouse, rat and human samples.
References 1. Albuquerque, E.X. et al (2009) Physiol. Rev. 89, 73. 2. Karlin, A. et al. (1986) Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 463, 53. 3. Kalamida, D. et al. (2007) FEBS J. 274, 3799. 4. Barkas, T. et al. (1987) Science 235, 77. 5. Lindstrom, J.M. (2000) Muscle Nerve 23, 453. 6. Neumann, D. et al. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 3008.
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