|Application ||WB, ICC|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||52921 Da|
|Homology||Mouse - identical; human - 9/12 amino acid residues identical.|
|Other Names||Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4, Chrm4, Chrm-4|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide(C) RTLNPASKWSK, corresponding to amino acid residues 330-340 of rat M4 Muscarinic Receptor (Accession P08485). 3rd intracellular loop.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by amino acid analysis and mass-spectrography.|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.85 mg/ml.|
|Buffer After Reconstitution||Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
Thousands of laboratories across the world have published research that depended on the performance of antibodies from Abgent to advance their research. Check out links to articles that cite our products in major peer-reviewed journals, organized by research category.
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter which activates two different groups of receptors: nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which belong to the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR), belonging to the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. There are five separate gene products that put together this GPCR subfamily, M1-M5. Generally, M1, M3 and M5 muscarinic receptors are known to activate phospholipase C (PLC) via Gq coupling, while M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors couple to Gi/o, and therefore inhibit adenylate cyclase1. This classification is however not clear cut. mAChR can activate adenylate cyclase by coupling to Gs2. In addition, M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors, when overexpressed can also activate adenylate cyclase in some systems3-5. Evidence suggests that muscarinic receptors can form homo or heterodimers at that the dimer formed can subsequently affect the downstream signaling pathways1. Muscarinic receptors have been shown to regulate voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, namely Cav2.1 6 as well acid sensing ion channels (ASIC)7. Generally speaking the actions of muscarinic receptors on ion channels can be either via 2nd messengers or through their direct action on the channels once activated8. Furthermore, muscarinic receptors can also promote endocytosis of ion channels (KV1.2 for example) by recruiting tyrosine kinases that phosphorylate the channel in order to terminate its activity9. Other diverse and important functions of muscarinic receptors include cell growth, survival and physiology1. Expression of muscarinic receptors is found in neurons in the central nervous system as well as in the peripheral nervous system. In the non-nervous system, these receptors are expressed in the cardiac and smooth muscle, lung, intestine, ovary and urothelium1,10. M4 muscarinic receptor is mostly expressed in the striatum where it colocalizes with D1 dopamine receptors11-13. Malfunction of M4 muscarinic receptor is associated with a number of psychological and neurodegenerative diseases like schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases11,14,15. Abgent is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope of rat M4 muscarinic receptor. Anti-M4 Muscarinic Receptor antibody (#AG1217) can be used in western blot analysis. It was designed to recognize rat, mouse and human M4 muscarinic receptor.
1. Nathanson, N.M. (2008) Pharmacol. Ther. 119, 33.
2. Migeon, J.C. and Nathanson N.M. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 9767.
3. Ashkenazi, A. et al. (1987) Science 238, 672.
4. Tietje, K.M. et al. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 2828.
5. Katz, A. et al. (1992) Nature 360, 686.
6. Perez-Burgos, A. et al. (2010) Neuroscience 165, 293.
7. Dorofeeva, N.A. et al. (2009) Neuroreport 20, 1386.
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