|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||107223 Da|
|Homology||Human, mouse - identical.|
|Other Names||Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4, GluK4, Glutamate receptor KA-1, KA1, Grik4|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide (C)KNRINRAPERLGK, corresponding to amino acid residues 49-61 of rat GluK4 (Accession Q01812). Extracellular, N-terminus.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by mass-spectrography and amino acid analysis.|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.8 mg/ml.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl DDW.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
|Formulation||Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate is involved in cognitive functions like learning and memory in the brain. Imbalances in glutamatergic transmission have profound physiological and behavioral consequences1. Ionotropic glutamate receptors are classified functionally and by molecular homology into three receptor classes: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), and kainate (KA)2. KA receptors assemble as tetramers from five subunit types, GluK1, GluK2 GluK3, GluK4 and GluK5. The GluK1-GluK3 subunits have low glutamate affinity and are capable of forming functional homomeric channels. GluK4 and GluK5 are high-affinity kainate receptor subunits that bind glutamate but require coassembly with one or more GluK1-GluK3 subunits to form functional channels. The heteromultimeric assembly of kainate receptors like many other ion channels leads to the formation of receptors with unique pharmacological and functional properties3. Unlike the other KA receptor subunits, which are expressed throughout the CNS, GluK4 expression is limited to only a few regions of the brain, and expression is highest in the CA3 region of the hippocampus and dentate gyrus4. The GluK4 receptor subunit gene, GRIK4, is located near the tip of the long arm of chromosome 11. Genetic variants in the GRIK4 gene have been demonstrated to associate with several psychiatric disorders. GRIK4 has been identified as a susceptibility gene in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder5. GluK4 may also play a role in excitotoxic Neurodegeneration6.
References 1. Krystal, J.H. et al. (1994) Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 51,199. 2. Lodge, D. (2009) Neuropharmacology 56, 6. 3. Lerma, J. et al. (2001) Physiol. Rev. 81, 971. 4. Bahn, S. et al. (1994) J. Neurosci. 14, 5525. 5. Pickard, B.S. et al. (2006) Mol. Psychiatry 11, 847. 6. Ben-Ari, Y. (1985) Neuroscience 14, 375.
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