|Calculated MW||48245 Da|
|Homology||Human, swine, bovine - 13/14 amino acid residues identical; chicken - 12/14 amino acid residues identical.|
|Other Names||Endothelin-1 receptor, Endothelin A receptor, ET-A, ET-AR, Ednra|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide (C)NHNTERSSHKDSMN, corresponding to amino acid residues 413-426 of rat ET-A (Accession P26684). Intracellular, C-terminus.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by mass-spectrography and amino acid analysis.|
|Application Details||Immunohistochemistry (IH): - Mouse retina (see Bramall, A.N. et al. (2013) in Product Citations).|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.9 mg/ml.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
|Formulation||Lyophilized powder. Reconstituted antibody contains phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
The endothelin system is comprised of three active peptides, ET-1, 2, and 3, which are considered to be very powerful vasoconstrictive substances. In humans, endothelins mediate their actions via two specific G-Protein Coupled Receptors, ETAR and ETBR. Both ETAR and ETBR are present in heart and in human myocardium at similar levels.1,2 The endothelin receptors differ in their ligand specificity. While ETAR has varying affinities for the endothelin isoforms (ET-1 >ET-2>ET-3), ETBR shows no selective affinity.2,3 Subsequent studies have demonstrated the presence of endothelins in vascular as well as in non-vascular cells and tissues, having multiple biological activities. Currently, there is increasing evidence that ET-1 may modulate mitogenesis, apoptosis, angiogenesis tumor invasion and the development of metastases.3 Overexpression of ET-1 and ETAR was reported in different malignancies including prostate cancer human Kaposi’s sarcoma, ovarian and breast carcinomas.4-9 In breast carcinomas overexpression of ET-1 and ETA receptors correlated with parameters that characterize aggressive types of breast cancer15 suggesting that analysis of ETAR expression might be used as a diagnostic marker for evaluating the progression of the disease and effectiveness of treatment. These and other findings have made ET receptors, and especially ETAR, promising therapeutic targets for pharmacological intervention.
References 1. Davenport, A.P. (2002) Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 219. 2. Boivin, B. et al. (2003) J. Biol.Chem. 278, 29153. 3. Grant, K. et al. (2003) Br. J. Cancer. 88, 163. 4. Asham, E. et al. (2001) Br. J. Cancer. 85, 1759. 5. Kopetz, E.S. et al. (2002) Invest. New Drugs. 20, 173. 6. Rosano, L. et al. (2003) Am. J. Pathol. 163, 753. 7. Rosano, L. et al. (2003) Cancer Res. 63, 2447. 8. Wulfing, P. et al. (2003) Clin. Cancer Res. 9, 4125. 9. Nelson, J.B. (2003) J. Urol. 170, S65.
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