|Calculated MW||41294 Da|
|Homology||Mouse - identical; human - 9/14 amino acid residues identical.|
|Other Names||D(4) dopamine receptor, D(2C) dopamine receptor, Dopamine D4 receptor, Drd4|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||Peptide (C)RRWEAARHTKLHSR, corresponding to amino acid residues 215-228 of rat D4 Dopamine receptor (Accession P30729). 3rd intracellular loop.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by amino acid analysis.|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||Add 50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||0.8 mg/ml.|
|Buffer After Reconstitution||Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.025% NaN3.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl water.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||1 µg peptide per 1 µg antibody.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
The Dopamine neurotransmitter belongs to catecholamines and can therefore be further converted into adrenaline and noreadrenaline. Dopamine has various physiological roles, including learning and memory, motor output and endocrine regulation. It does so by binding and activating Dopamine receptors which belong to the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily (GPCR)1. The D4 Dopamine Receptor belongs to the D2-like family as do D2 and D3 Dopamine Receptors and like all GPCRs has seven transmembrane spanning membrane regions. Structure wise members of the family share high homology in the transmembrane domains and lower homology in the extracellular N-Terminal and the intracellular C-terminal domains. Notably, the coding region of the 3rd intracellular loop of D4 Receptor is known to undergo extensive polymorphism2. Like many GPCRs, each dopamine receptor subtype can react with more than one G-protein giving rise to different signaling possibilities3. Whereas D2-like dopamine receptors are generally considered to couple to Gi, and therefore inhibit adenylyl cyclase, the signaling through D4 is complicated due to the polymorphisms in the 3rd intracellular loop. It seems that this region is important to G-coupling as different polyphormisms in the region influence the ability of D4 to couple to adenylyl cyclase and G-proteins4,5. D4 Dopamine Receptors also influence Ca2+ levels3,6. They could also interact with G-protein couple inwardly rectifying K+ channel to ultimately cause a decrease in the firing rate of neurons7. The distribution of D4 Dopamine Receptor mostly includes the brain and is mainly found post-synaptically in dendritic shafts and spines of mammalian striatum8. Abgent is pleased to offer a highly specific antibody directed against an epitope located at the 3rd intracellular loop of rat D4 Dopamine Receptor. Anti-D4 Dopamine Receptor antibody (#AG1288) can be used in western blot analysis, and recognizes D4 Dopamine Receptor from rat and mouse samples.
1. Rondou, P. et al. (2010) Cell. Mol. Life Sci. DOI 10.1007/500010.
2. Civelli, O. et al. (1993) Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 33, 281.
3. Sidhu, A. and Niznik, H.B. (2000) Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. 18, 669.
4. Kazni, M.A. et al. (2000) Biochemistry 39, 3734.
5. Oldenhof, J. et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 15726.
6. Chang, F.M. et al. (1996) Hum. Genet. 98, 91.
7. Lavine, N. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 46010.
8. Rivera, A. et al. (2002) J. Neurochem. 80, 219.
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