|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||34480 Da|
|Homology||Mouse - 73/75 amino acid residues identical; bovine -71/75 amino acid residues identical; human - 69/75 amino acid residues identical; rabbit - 64/75 amino acid residues identical.|
|Other Names||Aquaporin-4, AQP-4, Mercurial-insensitive water channel, MIWC, WCH4, Aqp4|
|Related products for control experiments||Control peptide antigen (supplied with the antibody free of charge).|
|Target/Specificity||GST fusion protein with the sequence EYVFCPDVELKRRLKEAFSK AAQQTKGSYMEVEDNRSQVETEDLILKPGVVHVIDIDRGDEKKGK DSSGEVLSSV, corresponding to amino acid residues 249-323 of rat AQP4 (Accession # P47863). Intracellular, C-terminus.|
|Peptide Confirmation||Confirmed by DNA sequence and SDS-PAGE.|
|Application Details||Immunohistochemistry (IH): - Rat brain (1:200) (see Jo, S.M. et al. (2011) in Product Citations). - Mouse kidney (Langaa, S. et al. (2012) in Product Citations). Immunocytochemistry (IC): - Xenopus oocytes (1:5000) (see Assentoft, M. et al. (2013) in Product Citations). - Human AQP4 transfected in HEK-293 cells. (see De Vidi, I. et al. (2011) in Product Citations). Indirect flow cytometry (IFC): - Human AQP4 transfected in HEK-293 cells. (see De Vidi, I. et al. (2011) in Product Citations).|
|Format||Affinity purified antibody, lyophilized powder|
|Reconstitution||25 µl, 50 µl or 0.2 ml deionized water, depending on the sample size.|
|Antibody Concentration After Reconstitution||1 mg/ml.|
|Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Storage After Reconstitution||The reconstituted solution can be stored at 4ºC for up to 2 weeks. For longer periods, small aliquots should be stored at -20ºC or below. Avoid multiple freezing and thawing. The further dilutions should be made using a carrier protein such as BSA (1%). Centrifuge all antibody preparations before use (10000 × g 5 min).|
|Control Antigen Storage Before Reconstitution||Lyophilized powder can be stored intact at room temperature for several weeks. For longer periods, it should be stored at -20°C.|
|Control Antigen Reconstitution||100 µl PBS.|
|Control Antigen Storage After Reconstitution||-20ºC.|
|Preadsorption Control||3 µg fusion protein per 1 µg antibody.|
|Formulation||Lyophilized powder. Phosphate buffered saline (PBS), pH 7.4, 1% BSA, 0.05% NaN3.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) belongs to a family of membrane proteins that allow passage of water and certain solutes through biological membranes. The family is composed of 13 members (AQP-0 to AQP-12). The aquaporins can be divided into two functional groups based on their permability characteristics: the aquaporins that are only permeated by water and the aquaglyceroporins that are permeated by water and other small solutes such as glycerol. AQP-4 together with AQP-1, AQP-2 and AQP-5 belongs to the first group.1 Little is known about the function of the two newest members, AQP-11 and AQP-12. The proteins present a conserved structure of six transmembrane domains with intracellular N- and C-termini. The functional channel is a tetramer but each subunit has a separate pore and therefore the functional channel unit, contains four pores.1 AQP-4 is the major membrane water channel in the central nervous system. The channel is expressed in astrocyte foot processes in direct contact with capillary vessels in the brain suggesting a role in water transport under normal and pathological conditions. Indeed, transgenic mice lacking AQP-4 have reduced brain swelling and improved neurological outcome following water intoxication and focal cerebral ischemia. In contrast, brain swelling and clinical outcome are worse in AQP-4-null mice in models of vasogenic (fluid leak) edema caused by freeze-injury and brain tumor, probably due to impaired AQP-4-dependent brain water clearance.2 In addition, it has been recently shown that neuromyelitis optica (NMO), an inflammatory demyelinating disease that selectively affects optic nerves and spinal cord, is caused by the development of an autoantibody directed against AQP-4.3
References 1. King, L.S. et al. (2004) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5, 687. 2. Manley, G.T. et al. (2004) Neuroscience. 129, 983. 3. Lennon, V.A. et al. (2005) J. Exp. Med. 202, 473.
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