|Application ||IHC, IF, FC, IP, E|
|Calculated MW||44kDa (monomer); 88kDa (dimer)|
|Other Names||T-cell-specific surface glycoprotein CD28, TP44, CD28, CD28|
|Target/Specificity||Recombinant human CD28 protein|
|Application Note||ELISA : For coating, order Ab without BSA|
Flow Cytometry : 0.5-1ug/million cells
Immunofluorescence : 0.5-1.0 µg/ml
Functional Studies : Order Ab without BSA & Azide
Immunoprecipitation : 0.5-1 µg/500ug protein lysate
Immunohistology (Frozen & Formalin-fixed) : 0.5-1.0 µg/ml for 30 minutes at RT
(Staining of formalin-fixed tissues is enhanced by boiling tissue sections in 1mM EDTA Buffer, pH 8.5-9.5, for 10-20 min followed by cooling at RT for 20 minutes).
|Format||0.5 ml at 200ug/ml with BSA and azide|
|Storage||Store at 2 to 8°C.Antibody is stable for 24 months.|
|Precautions||CD28 Antibody - With BSA and Azide is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Involved in T-cell activation, the induction of cell proliferation and cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival. Enhances the production of IL4 and IL10 in T-cells in conjunction with TCR/CD3 ligation and CD40L costimulation (PubMed:8617933). Isoform 3 enhances CD40L-mediated activation of NF-kappa-B and kinases MAPK8 and PAK2 in T-cells (PubMed:15067037).|
|Cellular Location||Membrane; Single-pass type I membrane protein|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in T-cells and plasma cells, but not in less mature B-cells|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Recognizes a glycoprotein of 44-88kDa, which is identified as CD28. It is the critical T-cell co-stimulatory receptor which provides to the cell the important second activation signal by binding CD80 and CD86 that are expressed by antigen presenting cells. Besides its co-stimulation role, CD28 functions in preventing T-cells from anergic hyporesponsive state or from undergoing premature apoptotic cell death. CD28 is also expressed on human fetal NK cells and some NK cell lines, whereas on murine NK cells the CD28 expression is much broader.
1. Marti F, Krause A, Post NH, Lyddane C, Dupont B, Sadelain M, King PD: Negative-feedback regulation of CD28 costimulation by a novel mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase, MKP6. J Immunol. 2001;166(1):197-206.
2. Scharschmidt E, Wegener E, Heissmeyer V, Rao A, Krappmann D: Degradation of Bcl10 induced by T-cell activation negatively regulates NF-kappa B signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24(9):3860-73.
3. Jeong SH, Qiao M, Nascimbeni M, Hu Z, Rehermann B, Murthy K, Liang TJ. Immunization with hepatitis C virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2004;78(13):6995-7003.
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