|Application ||WB, IHC|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||64009 Da|
|Other Names||5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1, AMPK subunit alpha-1, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase, ACACA kinase, Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase kinase, HMGCR kinase, Tau-protein kinase PRKAA1, PRKAA1, AMPK1|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the C-term of human AMPK alpha-1 subunit was used as an immunogen|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||AMPK alpha 1 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Catalytic subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor protein kinase that plays a key role in regulating cellular energy metabolism. In response to reduction of intracellular ATP levels, AMPK activates energy-producing pathways and inhibits energy-consuming processes: inhibits protein, carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis, as well as cell growth and proliferation. AMPK acts via direct phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes, and by longer-term effects via phosphorylation of transcription regulators. Also acts as a regulator of cellular polarity by remodeling the actin cytoskeleton; probably by indirectly activating myosin. Regulates lipid synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating lipid metabolic enzymes such as ACACA, ACACB, GYS1, HMGCR and LIPE; regulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis by phosphorylating acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACACA and ACACB) and hormone-sensitive lipase (LIPE) enzymes, respectively. Regulates insulin-signaling and glycolysis by phosphorylating IRS1, PFKFB2 and PFKFB3. AMPK stimulates glucose uptake in muscle by increasing the translocation of the glucose transporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 to the plasma membrane, possibly by mediating phosphorylation of TBC1D4/AS160. Regulates transcription and chromatin structure by phosphorylating transcription regulators involved in energy metabolism such as CRTC2/TORC2, FOXO3, histone H2B, HDAC5, MEF2C, MLXIPL/ChREBP, EP300, HNF4A, p53/TP53, SREBF1, SREBF2 and PPARGC1A. Acts as a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver by phosphorylating CRTC2/TORC2, leading to CRTC2/TORC2 sequestration in the cytoplasm. In response to stress, phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of histone H2B (H2BS36ph), leading to promote transcription. Acts as a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation by phosphorylating TSC2, RPTOR and ATG1/ULK1: in response to nutrient limitation, negatively regulates the mTORC1 complex by phosphorylating RPTOR component of the mTORC1 complex and by phosphorylating and activating TSC2. In response to nutrient limitation, promotes autophagy by phosphorylating and activating ATG1/ULK1. In response to nutrient limitation, phosphorylates transcription factor FOXO3 promoting FOXO3 mitochontrial import (By similarity). AMPK also acts as a regulator of circadian rhythm by mediating phosphorylation of CRY1, leading to destabilize it. May regulate the Wnt signaling pathway by phosphorylating CTNNB1, leading to stabilize it. Also has tau-protein kinase activity: in response to amyloid beta A4 protein (APP) exposure, activated by CAMKK2, leading to phosphorylation of MAPT/TAU; however the relevance of such data remains unclear in vivo. Also phosphorylates CFTR, EEF2K, KLC1, NOS3 and SLC12A1.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=In response to stress, recruited by p53/TP53 to specific promoters|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
The 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a member of the SNF1 (sucrose nonfermentor) kinase family (1) AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein comprising α (63 kDa), β (38 kDa) and γ (38 kDa) subunits. The alpha subunit is the catalytic subunit (which requires phosphorylation to be active) (2-3). Beta and gamma are noncatalytic subunits, although they have been found to interact with the active subunit in liver. AMPK regulates fatty acid and sterol synthesis by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA as well as cholesterol synthesis via phosphorylation and inactivation of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (4). AMPK also appears to play a role in protecting cells from stresses that cause ATP depletion by switching off ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways.
1. Mitchelhill, K. I., Stapleton, D., Gao, G., House, C., Michell, B., Katsis, F., Witters, L. A., and Kemp, B. E. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 2361-2364
2. Stapleton et al. J. Biol. Chem. 271:611-614
3. Hamilton et al. FEBES Lett. 500:163-168, 2001
4. Carling, D., Clarke, P. R., Zammit, V. A., and Hardie, D. G. (1989) Eur. J. Biochem. 186, 129-136
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