|Application ||WB, IHC|
|Calculated MW||46744 Da|
|Other Names||Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, GSK-3 beta, Serine/threonine-protein kinase GSK3B, GSK3B|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in the C-term of human GSK-3β was used as immunogen. This antibody may detect splice isoform 2 based on sequence homology.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||GSK3 Antibody (C-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), EIF2B, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC, AXIN1, DPYSL2/CRMP2, JUN, NFATC1/NFATC, MAPT/TAU and MACF1. Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates. In skeletal muscle, contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis. May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors. Regulates protein synthesis by controlling the activity of initiation factor 2B (EIF2BE/EIF2B5) in the same manner as glycogen synthase. In Wnt signaling, GSK3B forms a multimeric complex with APC, AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin and phosphorylates the N-terminus of CTNNB1 leading to its degradation mediated by ubiquitin/proteasomes. Phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA. Phosphorylates NFATC1/NFATC on conserved serine residues promoting NFATC1/NFATC nuclear export, shutting off NFATC1/NFATC gene regulation, and thereby opposing the action of calcineurin. Phosphorylates MAPT/TAU on 'Thr-548', decreasing significantly MAPT/TAU ability to bind and stabilize microtubules. MAPT/TAU is the principal component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease. Plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex. Phosphorylates MACF1, inhibiting its binding to microtubules which is critical for its role in bulge stem cell migration and skin wound repair. Probably regulates NF-kappa-B (NFKB1) at the transcriptional level and is required for the NF-kappa-B-mediated anti-apoptotic response to TNF-alpha (TNF/TNFA). Negatively regulates replication in pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in apoptosis, loss of beta-cells and diabetes. Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation. Phosphorylates MUC1 in breast cancer cells, decreasing the interaction of MUC1 with CTNNB1/beta-catenin. Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth. Phosphorylates MARK2, leading to inhibit its activity. Phosphorylates SIK1 at 'Thr-182', leading to sustain its activity. Phosphorylates ZC3HAV1 which enhances its antiviral activity. Phosphorylates SNAI1, leading to its BTRC-triggered ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates SFPQ at 'Thr-687' upon T-cell activation. Phosphorylates NR1D1 st 'Ser-55' and 'Ser-59' and stabilizes it by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. Regulates the circadian clock via phosphorylation of the major clock components including ARNTL/BMAL1, CLOCK and PER2. Phosphorylates CLOCK AT 'Ser-427' and targets it for proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates ARNTL/BMAL1 at 'Ser-17' and 'Ser-21' and primes it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Phosphorylates OGT at 'Ser-3' or 'Ser-4' which positively regulates its activity.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cell membrane. Note=The phosphorylated form shows localization to cytoplasm and cell membrane. The MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway controls localization of the phosphorylated form to the cell membrane|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in testis, thymus, prostate and ovary and weakly expressed in lung, brain and kidney. Colocalizes with EIF2AK2/PKR and TAU in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β) is a Serine/Threonine protein kinas involved in the insulin and wingless pathways(1-2). Originally identified as a regulator of glycogen synthase, it has been shown to regulate a diverse array of cellular functions. GSK-3β activity is down regulated by phosphorylation on Serine 9 by PKB, or activated by phosphorylation on Tyrosine 216. Once activated, the protein can phosphorylate p53, c-jun, heat shock factor-1 and cyclin D1 (3-4). It is also known to phosphorylate Tau in Allzheimers disease. Additionally, increased GSK-3β protein levels are found in Alzheimers disease brains.
1. Plyte SE, Hughes K, Nikolakaki E, Pulverer BJ, Woodgett JR. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Dec 16; 1114(2-3):147
2. Miller, J. R. & Moon, R. T. (1996) Genes Dev. 10, 2527-2539
3. Boyle WJ, Smeal T, Defize LH, Angel P, Woodgett JR, Karin M, Hunter T. Cell. 1991 Feb 8; 64(3):573
4. Bellacosa, A., Testa, J. R., Staal, S. P. & Tsichllis, P. N. (1992) Science 254, 244-247
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