|Application ||WB, IHC|
|Calculated MW||47219 Da|
|Other Names||Interferon regulatory factor 3, IRF-3, IRF3|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding the N-terminus of human IRF-3 was used as an immunogen.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||IRF-3 Antibody (N-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Key transcriptional regulator of type I interferon (IFN)-dependent immune responses which plays a critical role in the innate immune response against DNA and RNA viruses. Regulates the transcription of type I IFN genes (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) by binding to an interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) in their promoters. Acts as a more potent activator of the IFN-beta (IFNB) gene than the IFN-alpha (IFNA) gene and plays a critical role in both the early and late phases of the IFNA/B gene induction. Found in an inactive form in the cytoplasm of uninfected cells and following viral infection, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), or toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, is phosphorylated by IKBKE and TBK1 kinases. This induces a conformational change, leading to its dimerization and nuclear localization and association with CREB binding protein (CREBBP) to form dsRNA-activated factor 1 (DRAF1), a complex which activates the transcription of the type I IFN and ISG genes. Can activate distinct gene expression programs in macrophages and can induce significant apoptosis in primary macrophages.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Shuttles between cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments, with export being the prevailing effect. When activated, IRF3 interaction with CREBBP prevents its export to the cytoplasm|
|Tissue Location||Expressed constitutively in a variety of tissues|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
A family of interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) have been shown to play a role in transcription of IFN genes as well as IFN-stimulated genes. The IRF-3 gene encodes a 50-kDa protein that binds specifically to the IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) but not to the IRF-1 binding site PRD-I. Overexpression of IRF-3 stimulates expression of the IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) promoter, an ISRE-containing promoter. The high amino acid homology between IRF-3 and ISG factor 3 gamma polypeptide (ISGF3 gamma) and their similar binding properties indicate that, like ISGF3 gamma, IRF-3 may activate transcription by complex formation with other transcriptional factors, possibly members of the Stat family (1). IRF-3 is expressed constitutively in a variety of tissues, and the relative levels of IRF-3 mRNA do not change in virus-infected or IFN-treated cells (2). In uninfected cells, the IRF-3 component of DRAF1 resides in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic localization of IRF-3 is dependent on a nuclear export signal, and IRF-3 is recognized by the chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) (also known as exportin 1) shuttling receptor. Following infection and specific phosphorylation, IRF-3 accumulates in the nucleus where it associates with CBP and p300 (3).
1. Au, WC Proc Natl Acad Sci 92(25):11657-61, 1995
2. Lin R, et al. Mol Cell Biol 18(5):2986-96, 1998
3. Kumar KP, et al. Mol Cell Bio 20(11):4159-68, 2000
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