|Application ||WB, DB|
|Calculated MW||60915 Da|
|Other Names||Serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk2, CHK2 checkpoint homolog, Cds1 homolog, Hucds1, hCds1, Checkpoint kinase 2, CHEK2, CDS1, CHK2, RAD53|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic phospho-peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Threonine 68 of human Chk2 was used as immunogen. The antibody will detect Chk2 phosphorylation on Threonine 68. This antibody may also detect all splice isoforms (2-12) based on sequence homology.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||Chk2 Antibody Phospho (pT68) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||CDS1, CHK2, RAD53|
|Function||Serine/threonine-protein kinase which is required for checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest, activation of DNA repair and apoptosis in response to the presence of DNA double-strand breaks. May also negatively regulate cell cycle progression during unperturbed cell cycles. Following activation, phosphorylates numerous effectors preferentially at the consensus sequence [L-X- R-X-X-S/T]. Regulates cell cycle checkpoint arrest through phosphorylation of CDC25A, CDC25B and CDC25C, inhibiting their activity. Inhibition of CDC25 phosphatase activity leads to increased inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation of CDK-cyclin complexes and blocks cell cycle progression. May also phosphorylate NEK6 which is involved in G2/M cell cycle arrest. Regulates DNA repair through phosphorylation of BRCA2, enhancing the association of RAD51 with chromatin which promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination. Also stimulates the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair (including BRCA2) through the phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor FOXM1. Regulates apoptosis through the phosphorylation of p53/TP53, MDM4 and PML. Phosphorylation of p53/TP53 at 'Ser-20' by CHEK2 may alleviate inhibition by MDM2, leading to accumulation of active p53/TP53. Phosphorylation of MDM4 may also reduce degradation of p53/TP53. Also controls the transcription of pro-apoptotic genes through phosphorylation of the transcription factor E2F1. Tumor suppressor, it may also have a DNA damage-independent function in mitotic spindle assembly by phosphorylating BRCA1. Its absence may be a cause of the chromosomal instability observed in some cancer cells. Promotes the CCAR2-SIRT1 association and is required for CCAR2-mediated SIRT1 inhibition (PubMed:25361978).|
|Cellular Location||Isoform 2: Nucleus. Note=Isoform 10 is present throughout the cell Isoform 7: Nucleus. Isoform 12: Nucleus.|
|Tissue Location||High expression is found in testis, spleen, colon and peripheral blood leukocytes. Low expression is found in other tissues|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Chk2 is a checkpoint kinase that plays a role in regulating cell cycle progression. In response to DNA damage and DNA replicational stress, Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylate Cdc25C to prevent entry into mitosis (1,2). Consisting of ionizing radiation (IR), UV irradiation or hydroxyurea treatment, DNA damage induces ATM/ATR to phosphorylate Thr68 and other sites in the amino terminal domain (3). Phosphorylation at Thr68 is a prerequisite for subsequent activation steps.
1. Blasina, A., et al. A human homologue of the checkpoint kinase Cds1 directly inhibits Cdc25 phosphatase. Curr Biol. 9: 1
2. Matsuoka, S., et al. Linkage of ATM to cell cycle regulation by the Chk2 protein kinase. Science 282: 1893
3. Matsuoka, S., et al. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated phosphorylates Chk2 in vivo and in vitro. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97: 10389
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