|Calculated MW||36568 Da|
|Other Names||PRKC apoptosis WT1 regulator protein, Prostate apoptosis response 4 protein, Par-4, PAWR, PAR4|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in human PAR4 was used as an immunogen.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||PAR4 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Pro-apoptopic protein capable of selectively inducing apoptosis in cancer cells, sensitizing the cells to diverse apoptotic stimuli and causing regression of tumors in animal models. Induces apoptosis in certain cancer cells by activation of the Fas prodeath pathway and coparallel inhibition of NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Inhibits the transcriptional activation and augments the transcriptional repression mediated by WT1. Down- regulates the anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 via its interaction with WT1. Seems also to be a transcriptional repressor by itself. May be directly involved in regulating the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage activity of BACE1.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Mainly cytoplasmic in absence of apoptosis signal and in normal cells. Nuclear in most cancer cell lines. Nuclear entry seems to be essential but not sufficient for apoptosis (By similarity). Nuclear localization includes nucleoplasm and PML nuclear bodies.|
|Tissue Location||Widely expressed. Expression is elevated in various neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer, Parkinson and Huntington diseases and stroke. Down-regulated in several cancers|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Prostate apoptosis response protein (PAR4) is a proapoptotic protein with intracellular functions in the cytoplasm and nucleus, capable of suppressing tumors (1). Extracellular PAR4 induces apoptosis by binding to the stress response protein, glucose-regulated protein-78 (GRP78), via an extrinsic pathway (1). PAR4 contains leucine zipper and death domains that are upregulated in prostate cancer cells and hippocampal neurons induced to undergo apoptosis (2). Alzheimer?s and Parkinson?s diseases are both targets for PAR-4 in treatments that block its expression, preventing neuronal cell death (3). In Parkinson?s disease, the death of dopaminergic neurons follows a degenerative pathway that circumvents the apoptotic induction of PAR-4 (4). An isoform of PAR-4, PAR-4/p33, prevents apoptosis in neural stem cells and does not activate caspase 3 (5).
1. Burikhanov et al. Cell 138 (2): 377-388, 2009. 2. Pedersen et al. The FASEB Journal 14:913-924. 2000. 3. Mattson et al. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 4(1): 51-63, 2000. 4. Moos et al. Acta Neuropathol. 107(1):23-6, 2004. 5. Wang et al. Apoptosis. 11(3):315-25, 2006.
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