|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||81865 Da|
|Other Names||Protein kinase C theta type, nPKC-theta, PRKCQ, PRKCT|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Tyrosine 538 of human PKC theta was used as an immunogen. This antibody detects both phosphorylated (pT538) and unphosphorylated PKC theta.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||PKC-theta theta Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Calcium-independent, phospholipid- and diacylglycerol (DAG)-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase that mediates non- redundant functions in T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling, including T-cells activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival, by mediating activation of multiple transcription factors such as NF-kappa-B, JUN, NFATC1 and NFATC2. In TCR-CD3/CD28-co-stimulated T-cells, is required for the activation of NF-kappa-B and JUN, which in turn are essential for IL2 production, and participates in the calcium-dependent NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation. Mediates the activation of the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (NFKB1) by direct phosphorylation of CARD11 on several serine residues, inducing CARD11 association with lipid rafts and recruitment of the BCL10-MALT1 complex, which then activates IKK complex, resulting in nuclear translocation and activation of NFKB1. May also play an indirect role in activation of the non- canonical NF-kappa-B (NFKB2) pathway. In the signaling pathway leading to JUN activation, acts by phosphorylating the mediator STK39/SPAK and may not act through MAP kinases signaling. Plays a critical role in TCR/CD28-induced NFATC1 and NFATC2 transactivation by participating in the regulation of reduced inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate generation and intracellular calcium mobilization. After costimulation of T-cells through CD28 can phosphorylate CBLB and is required for the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of CBLB, which is a prerequisite for the activation of TCR. During T-cells differentiation, plays an important role in the development of T-helper 2 (Th2) cells following immune and inflammatory responses, and, in the development of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, is necessary for the activation of IL17-producing Th17 cells. May play a minor role in Th1 response. Upon TCR stimulation, mediates T-cell protective survival signal by phosphorylating BAD, thus protecting T-cells from BAD-induced apoptosis, and by up-regulating BCL-X(L)/BCL2L1 levels through NF-kappa-B and JUN pathways. In platelets, regulates signal transduction downstream of the ITGA2B, CD36/GP4, F2R/PAR1 and F2RL3/PAR4 receptors, playing a positive role in 'outside-in' signaling and granule secretion signal transduction. May relay signals from the activated ITGA2B receptor by regulating the uncoupling of WASP and WIPF1, thereby permitting the regulation of actin filament nucleation and branching activity of the Arp2/3 complex. May mediate inhibitory effects of free fatty acids on insulin signaling by phosphorylating IRS1, which in turn blocks IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation and downstream activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Phosphorylates MSN (moesin) in the presence of phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidylinositol. Phosphorylates PDPK1 at 'Ser-504' and 'Ser-532' and negatively regulates its ability to phosphorylate PKB/AKT1.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=In resting T-cells, mostly localized in cytoplasm. In response to TCR stimulation, associates with lipid rafts and then localizes in the immunological synapse|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in skeletal muscle, T-cells, megakaryoblastic cells and platelets|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Members of the protein kinase C (PKC) family of serine/threonine kinases play a key role in regulating the differentiation and growth of diverse cell types and, to date, the cloning of seven mammalian PKC genes encoding eight distinct isoforms has been reported. PKC theta represents an additional member of the PKC family, and its predominant expression in hematopoietic cells suggests that it may play a role in signal transduction and growth regulatory pathways unique to these cells (1). PKC theta is a Ca(2+)-independent PKC isoform that is selectively expressed in T lymphocytes (and muscle), and is thought to play an important role in T cell receptor-induced activation (2). Among the several PKC isoenzymes expressed in T cells, PKC theta is unique in being rapidly recruited to the site of TCR clustering. It has been shown that PKC theta is essential for TCR-mediated T-cell activation, but is dispensable during TCR-dependent thymocyte development (3).
1. Baier G, et al. J Biol Chem 268(7):4997-5004, 1993
2. Witte S, et al. J Biol Chem 275(3):1902-9, 2000
3. Sun Z, et al. Nature 404(6776):402-7, 2000
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