|Application ||WB, IHC|
|Calculated MW||52306 Da|
|Other Names||Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2, MAD homolog 2, Mothers against DPP homolog 2, JV18-1, Mad-related protein 2, hMAD-2, SMAD family member 2, SMAD 2, Smad2, hSMAD2, SMAD2, MADH2, MADR2|
|Target/Specificity||A synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding the MH1 domain of human Smad2 was used as immunogen.|
|Format||50 mM Tris-Glycine (pH 7.4), 0.15 M NaCl, 40% Glycerol, 0.01% sodium azide and 0.05% BSA.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||Smad2 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. May act as a tumor suppressor in colorectal carcinoma. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Cytoplasmic and nuclear in the absence of TGF-beta. On TGF-beta stimulation, migrates to the nucleus when complexed with SMAD4 (PubMed:9865696). On dephosphorylation by phosphatase PPM1A, released from the SMAD2/SMAD4 complex, and exported out of the nucleus by interaction with RANBP1 (PubMed:16751101, PubMed:19289081)|
|Tissue Location||Expressed at high levels in skeletal muscle, endothelial cells, heart and placenta|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Smad 2 is a member of the Mothers Against Dpp (MAD)-related family of proteins. So far, nine Smads have been identified and can be divided in 3 subgroups based on their structure and functions; pathway-restricted, common mediator and inhibitory Smad. Smad 2 and 3 serve as pathway-restricted Smads for the TGF-beta/activin signaling pathways (1-2). Smad 2 is phosphorylated by the TGF-beta type 1 receptor kinase on Ser 465 and Ser 467. Phosphorylation of both serines is essential for Smad 2-Smad4 heteromeric complex and dissociation of Smad 2 from the TGF-beta type 1 receptor (3). Once phosphorylated Smad2 translocate to the nucleus where it associates with DNA-binding proteins and forming a transcriptional complex (4). Unlike Smad 3 and 4, Smad 2 does not directly bind DNA (5).
1. Eppert, et al. Cell 86:543-552, 1996
2. Derynck R, et al. Curr Biol 6:1226-1229, 1996
3. Yagi K, et al. J Biol Chem 274:703-709, 1999
4. Chen X, et al. Nature 383:691-696, 1996
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