|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF|
|Predicted||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||97551 Da|
|Dilution||IF (1:50 - 1:200), IHC-P (1:100), WB (1:500 - 1:2000)|
|Other Names||PML, PP8675, Promyelocytic leukemia, Protein PML, TRIM19, Promyelocytic leukemia protein, RING finger protein 71, MYL, RNF71|
|Reconstitution & Storage||PBS, pH 7.3, 0.02% sodium azide, 50% glycerol. Long term: -80°C; Short term: -20°C. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||Anti-PML Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||MYL, PP8675, RNF71, TRIM19|
|Function||Functions via its association with PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in a wide range of important cellular processes, including tumor suppression, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, senescence, DNA damage response, and viral defense mechanisms. Acts as the scaffold of PML-NBs allowing other proteins to shuttle in and out, a process which is regulated by SUMO-mediated modifications and interactions. Isoform PML-4 has a multifaceted role in the regulation of apoptosis and growth suppression: activates RB1 and inhibits AKT1 via interactions with PP1 and PP2A phosphatases respectively, negatively affects the PI3K pathway by inhibiting MTOR and activating PTEN, and positively regulates p53/TP53 by acting at different levels (by promoting its acetylation and phosphorylation and by inhibiting its MDM2-dependent degradation). Isoform PML-4 also: acts as a transcriptional repressor of TBX2 during cellular senescence and the repression is dependent on a functional RBL2/E2F4 repressor complex, regulates double-strand break repair in gamma- irradiation-induced DNA damage responses via its interaction with WRN, acts as a negative regulator of telomerase by interacting with TERT, and regulates PER2 nuclear localization and circadian function. Isoform PML-6 inhibits specifically the activity of the tetrameric form of PKM. The nuclear isoforms (isoform PML-1, isoform PML-2, isoform PML-3, isoform PML-4 and isoform PML-5) in concert with SATB1 are involved in local chromatin-loop remodeling and gene expression regulation at the MHC-I locus. Isoform PML-2 is required for efficient IFN-gamma induced MHC II gene transcription via regulation of CIITA. Cytoplasmic PML is involved in the regulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. PML also regulates transcription activity of ELF4 and can act as an important mediator for TNF-alpha- and IFN-alpha-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell network formation and migration.|
|Cellular Location||Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleoplasm. Cytoplasm. Nucleus, PML body. Nucleus, nucleolus. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Early endosome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Note=Isoform PML-1 can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Isoform PML-2, isoform PML-3, isoform PML-4, isoform PML-5 and isoform PML-6 are nuclear isoforms whereas isoform PML-7 and isoform PML-14 lacking the nuclear localization signal are cytoplasmic isoforms. Detected in the nucleolus after DNA damage. Acetylation at Lys-487 is essential for its nuclear localization. Within the nucleus, most of PML is expressed in the diffuse nuclear fraction of the nucleoplasm and only a small fraction is found in the matrix-associated nuclear bodies (PML-NBs). The transfer of PML from the nucleoplasm to PML- NBs depends on its phosphorylation and sumoylation. The B1 box and the RING finger are also required for the localization in PML-NBs Also found in specific membrane structures termed mitochondria- associated membranes (MAMs) which connect the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria. Sequestered in the cytoplasm by interaction with rabies virus phosphoprotein|
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