|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF|
|Predicted||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||51641 Da|
|Dilution||IF, IHC-P (1:100), WB|
|Other Names||PARK2, AR-JP, LPRS2, Parkin, PDJ, Parkinson disease protein 2, PRKN|
|Target/Specificity||Human PARK2 / Parkin|
|Reconstitution & Storage||Affinity purified|
|Precautions||Anti-PARK2 / Parkin 2 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins, such as BCL2, SYT11, CCNE1, GPR37, RHOT1/MIRO1, MFN1, MFN2, STUB1, SNCAIP, SEPT5, TOMM20, USP30, ZNF746 and AIMP2 (PubMed:10973942, PubMed:10888878, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:12150907, PubMed:12628165, PubMed:16135753, PubMed:21376232, PubMed:23754282, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24660806, PubMed:24751536). Mediates monoubiquitination as well as 'Lys-6', 'Lys-11', 'Lys-48'-linked and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of substrates depending on the context (PubMed:19229105, PubMed:20889974, PubMed:25621951). Participates in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein by mediating 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins such as PARK7: 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins are then recognized by HDAC6, leading to their recruitment to aggresomes, followed by degradation (PubMed:17846173, PubMed:19229105). Mediates 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitination of a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, possibly playing a role in Lewy-body formation (PubMed:11590439, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:19229105, PubMed:11590439, PubMed:15728840). Mediates monoubiquitination of BCL2, thereby acting as a positive regulator of autophagy (PubMed:20889974). Promotes the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria (mitophagy) by promoting the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins such as TOMM20, RHOT1/MIRO1 and USP30 (PubMed:19029340, PubMed:19966284, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24896179, PubMed:25527291). Preferentially assembles 'Lys-6'-, 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains following mitochondrial damage, leading to mitophagy (PubMed:25621951). Mediates 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination of ZNF746, followed by degradation of ZNF746 by the proteasome; possibly playing a role in the regulation of neuron death (PubMed:21376232). Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regulates cyclin-E during neuronal apoptosis. In collaboration with CHPF isoform 2, may enhance cell viability and protect cells from oxidative stress (PubMed:22082830). Independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity, protects from apoptosis by the transcriptional repression of p53/TP53 (PubMed:19801972). May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity (PubMed:11439185). May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion. Note=Mainly localizes in the cytosol. Co-localizes with SYT11 in neutrites. Co-localizes with SNCAIP in brainstem Lewy bodies. Mitochondrial localization gradually increases with cellular growth. Also relocates to dysfunctional mitochondria that have lost the mitochondrial membrane potential; recruitment to mitochondria is PINK1- dependent|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in the brain including the substantia nigra. Expressed in heart, testis and skeletal muscle Expression is down-regulated or absent in tumor biopsies, and absent in the brain of PARK2 patients. Overexpression protects dopamine neurons from kainate-mediated apoptosis. Found in serum (at protein level).|
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