|Application ||WB, IHC, ICC, E|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Monkey|
|Description||ERK2 (also designated extracellular-signal-related kinase 2 or mitogen-activated protein kinase 1), with 360-amino acid protein (about 40kDa), belongs to the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. The activation of ERK2 requires its phosphorylation by upstream kinases. ERK2 is located in the cytoplasm of resting cells and translocates into the nucleus upon extracellular stimuli by active transport of a dimer. ERK2 is essential for placental development and ERK2 in the trophoblast compartment may be indispensable for the vascularization of the labyrinth.|
|Immunogen||Purified recombinant fragment of human ERK2 expressed in E. Coli.|
|Formulation||Purified antibody in PBS containing 0.03% sodium azide.|
|Other Names||Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, MAP kinase 1, MAPK 1, 22.214.171.124, ERT1, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, ERK-2, MAP kinase isoform p42, p42-MAPK, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2, MAP kinase 2, MAPK 2, MAPK1, ERK2, PRKM1, PRKM2|
|Dilution||WB~~1/500 - 1/2000|
IHC~~1/200 - 1/1000
IF~~1/200 - 1/1000
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||ERK2 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||ERK2, PRKM1, PRKM2|
|Function||Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, DCC, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade. Mediates phosphorylation of TPR in respons to EGF stimulation. May play a role in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Phosphorylates PML and promotes its interaction with PIN1, leading to PML degradation.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cytoplasm. Note=Associated with the spindle during prometaphase and metaphase (By similarity). PEA15- binding and phosphorylated DAPK1 promote its cytoplasmic retention. Phosphorylation at Ser- 246 and Ser-248 as well as autophosphorylation at Thr-190 promote nuclear localization|
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1. Angelique W. Whitehurst, Fred L. Robinson, Mary Shannon Moore. J. Biol. Chem., Mar 2004; 279: 12840 – 12847. 2. N Hatano, Y Mori, M Oh-hora. Genes Cells, Nov 2003; 8: 847 - 856.
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