|Application ||WB, IHC, ICC, E|
|Description||Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a member of the BTK/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases.All members of the family contain SH3 and SH2 domains and, with the exception of Txk and Dsrc28C, also contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) and a Tec homology (TH) domain in their amino termini.BTK plays an important role in B cell development. Activation of B cells by various ligands is accompanied by BTK membrane translocation mediated by its PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. The membrane located BTK is active and associated with transient phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues, Tyr551 and Tyr223. Tyr551 in the activation loop is transphosphorylated by the Src family tyrosine kinase, leading to autophosphorylation at Tyr223 within the SH3 domain, which is necessary for full activation.|
|Immunogen||Purified recombinant fragment of BTK expressed in E. Coli.|
|Formulation||Ascitic fluid containing 0.03% sodium azide.|
|Other Names||Tyrosine-protein kinase BTK, 184.108.40.206, Agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase, ATK, B-cell progenitor kinase, BPK, Bruton tyrosine kinase, BTK, AGMX1, ATK, BPK|
|Dilution||WB~~1/500 - 1/2000|
IHC~~1/200 - 1/1000
IF~~1/200 - 1/1000
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||BTK Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||AGMX1, ATK, BPK|
|Function||Non-receptor tyrosine kinase indispensable for B lymphocyte development, differentiation and signaling. Binding of antigen to the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) triggers signaling that ultimately leads to B-cell activation. After BCR engagement and activation at the plasma membrane, phosphorylates PLCG2 at several sites, igniting the downstream signaling pathway through calcium mobilization, followed by activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) family members. PLCG2 phosphorylation is performed in close cooperation with the adapter protein B-cell linker protein BLNK. BTK acts as a platform to bring together a diverse array of signaling proteins and is implicated in cytokine receptor signaling pathways. Plays an important role in the function of immune cells of innate as well as adaptive immunity, as a component of the Toll-like receptors (TLR) pathway. The TLR pathway acts as a primary surveillance system for the detection of pathogens and are crucial to the activation of host defense. Especially, is a critical molecule in regulating TLR9 activation in splenic B-cells. Within the TLR pathway, induces tyrosine phosphorylation of TIRAP which leads to TIRAP degradation. BTK plays also a critical role in transcription regulation. Induces the activity of NF-kappa-B, which is involved in regulating the expression of hundreds of genes. BTK is involved on the signaling pathway linking TLR8 and TLR9 to NF-kappa-B. Transiently phosphorylates transcription factor GTF2I on tyrosine residues in response to BCR. GTF2I then translocates to the nucleus to bind regulatory enhancer elements to modulate gene expression. ARID3A and NFAT are other transcriptional target of BTK. BTK is required for the formation of functional ARID3A DNA-binding complexes. There is however no evidence that BTK itself binds directly to DNA. BTK has a dual role in the regulation of apoptosis.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Cell membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Nucleus. Note=In steady state, BTK is predominantly cytosolic. Following B-cell receptor (BCR) engagement by antigen, translocates to the plasma membrane through its PH domain. Plasma membrane localization is a critical step in the activation of BTK. A fraction of BTK also shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, and nuclear export is mediated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1|
|Tissue Location||Predominantly expressed in B-lymphocytes.|
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1. Yamada, N., et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 192: 231-240. 2. Thomas, J.D., et al. 1993. Science. 261: 355-358. 3. Tamagnone, L., et al. Oncogene 9: 3683-3688.
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