|Application ||WB, IHC, FC, E|
|Description||Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines and is an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family as well as Mos and Tpl2/Cot. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway. MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK and the transcription factor Elk-1. p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs, along with MEK inhibitors such as U0126 and PD98059.|
|Immunogen||Purified recombinant fragment of human MAPK expressed in E. Coli.|
|Formulation||Ascitic fluid containing 0.03% sodium azide.|
|Other Names||Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, MAP kinase 1, MAPK 1, 220.127.116.11, ERT1, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2, ERK-2, MAP kinase isoform p42, p42-MAPK, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2, MAP kinase 2, MAPK 2, MAPK1, ERK2, PRKM1, PRKM2|
|Dilution||WB~~1/500 - 1/2000|
IHC~~1/200 - 1/1000
FC~~1/200 - 1/400
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||ERK2, PRKM1, PRKM2|
|Function||Serine/threonine kinase which acts as an essential component of the MAP kinase signal transduction pathway. MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 are the 2 MAPKs which play an important role in the MAPK/ERK cascade. They participate also in a signaling cascade initiated by activated KIT and KITLG/SCF. Depending on the cellular context, the MAPK/ERK cascade mediates diverse biological functions such as cell growth, adhesion, survival and differentiation through the regulation of transcription, translation, cytoskeletal rearrangements. The MAPK/ERK cascade plays also a role in initiation and regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors. About 160 substrates have already been discovered for ERKs. Many of these substrates are localized in the nucleus, and seem to participate in the regulation of transcription upon stimulation. However, other substrates are found in the cytosol as well as in other cellular organelles, and those are responsible for processes such as translation, mitosis and apoptosis. Moreover, the MAPK/ERK cascade is also involved in the regulation of the endosomal dynamics, including lysosome processing and endosome cycling through the perinuclear recycling compartment (PNRC); as well as in the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus during mitosis. The substrates include transcription factors (such as ATF2, BCL6, ELK1, ERF, FOS, HSF4 or SPZ1), cytoskeletal elements (such as CANX, CTTN, GJA1, MAP2, MAPT, PXN, SORBS3 or STMN1), regulators of apoptosis (such as BAD, BTG2, CASP9, DAPK1, IER3, MCL1 or PPARG), regulators of translation (such as EIF4EBP1) and a variety of other signaling-related molecules (like ARHGEF2, DCC, FRS2 or GRB10). Protein kinases (such as RAF1, RPS6KA1/RSK1, RPS6KA3/RSK2, RPS6KA2/RSK3, RPS6KA6/RSK4, SYK, MKNK1/MNK1, MKNK2/MNK2, RPS6KA5/MSK1, RPS6KA4/MSK2, MAPKAPK3 or MAPKAPK5) and phosphatases (such as DUSP1, DUSP4, DUSP6 or DUSP16) are other substrates which enable the propagation the MAPK/ERK signal to additional cytosolic and nuclear targets, thereby extending the specificity of the cascade. Mediates phosphorylation of TPR in respons to EGF stimulation. May play a role in the spindle assembly checkpoint. Phosphorylates PML and promotes its interaction with PIN1, leading to PML degradation.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, spindle. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, microtubule organizing center, centrosome. Cytoplasm. Note=Associated with the spindle during prometaphase and metaphase (By similarity). PEA15- binding and phosphorylated DAPK1 promote its cytoplasmic retention. Phosphorylation at Ser- 246 and Ser-248 as well as autophosphorylation at Thr-190 promote nuclear localization|
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1. FEBS Lett. 1992 Jun 15;304(2-3):170-8. 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jun 6;92(12):5361-5. 3. J Biol Chem. 2009 Nov 27;284(48):33456-65. 4. BMC Biol. 2009 Oct 27;7:70.
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