|Application ||WB, IHC, FC, ICC, E|
|Description||Common mediator of signal transduction by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) superfamily; SMAD4 is the common SMAD (co-SMAD). Promotes binding of the SMAD2/SMAD4/FAST-1 complex to DNA and provides an activation function required for SMAD1 or SMAD2 to stimulate transcription. May act as a tumor suppressor。Mutations or deletions in this gene have been shown to result in pancreatic cancer, juvenile polyposis syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia syndrome.|
|Immunogen||Purified recombinant fragment of human SMAD4 expressed in E. Coli. |
|Formulation||Ascitic fluid containing 0.03% sodium azide.|
|Other Names||Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4, MAD homolog 4, Mothers against DPP homolog 4, Deletion target in pancreatic carcinoma 4, SMAD family member 4, SMAD 4, Smad4, hSMAD4, SMAD4, DPC4, MADH4|
|Dilution||WB~~1/500 - 1/2000|
IF~~1/200 - 1/1000
IHC~~1/500 - 1/2000
FC~~1/200 - 1/400
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||SMAD4 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||In muscle physiology, plays a central role in the balance between atrophy and hypertrophy. When recruited by MSTN, promotes atrophy response via phosphorylated SMAD2/4. MSTN decrease causes SMAD4 release and subsequent recruitment by the BMP pathway to promote hypertrophy via phosphorylated SMAD1/5/8. Acts synergistically with SMAD1 and YY1 in bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-mediated cardiac-specific gene expression. Binds to SMAD binding elements (SBEs) (5'-GTCT/AGAC-3') within BMP response element (BMPRE) of cardiac activating regions (By similarity). Common SMAD (co-SMAD) is the coactivator and mediator of signal transduction by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor). Component of the heterotrimeric SMAD2/SMAD3-SMAD4 complex that forms in the nucleus and is required for the TGF-mediated signaling. Promotes binding of the SMAD2/SMAD4/FAST-1 complex to DNA and provides an activation function required for SMAD1 or SMAD2 to stimulate transcription. Component of the multimeric SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex which forms at the AP1 promoter site; required for synergistic transcriptional activity in response to TGF-beta. May act as a tumor suppressor. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Note=Cytoplasmic in the absence of ligand. Migrates to the nucleus when complexed with R-SMAD (PubMed:15799969). PDPK1 prevents its nuclear translocation in response to TGF-beta (PubMed:17327236)|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
1. Am J Hum Genet. 2009 Nov;85(5):628-42. 2. Mol Endocrinol. 2010 Mar;24(3):540-51.
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