|Application ||WB, IHC, FC, ICC, E|
|Description||This gene encodes a member of a family of calcium-regulated actin-binding proteins. This protein represents a dominant part of the brush border cytoskeleton which functions in the capping, severing, and bundling of actin filaments. Two mRNAs of 2.7 kb and 3.5 kb have been observed; they result from utilization of alternate poly-adenylation signals present in the terminal exon.|
|Immunogen||Purified recombinant fragment of human VIL1 (AA: 1-209) expressed in E. Coli.|
|Formulation||Purified antibody in PBS with 0.05% sodium azide.|
|Other Names||Villin-1, VIL1, VIL|
WB~~1/500 - 1/2000
IF~~1/200 - 1/1000
FC~~1/200 - 1/400
IHC~~1/200 - 1/1000
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||VIL1 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Epithelial cell-specific Ca(2+)-regulated actin- modifying protein that modulates the reorganization of microvillar actin filaments. Plays a role in the actin nucleation, actin filament bundle assembly, actin filament capping and severing. Binds phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA); binds LPA with higher affinity than PIP2. Binding to LPA increases its phosphorylation by SRC and inhibits all actin-modifying activities. Binding to PIP2 inhibits actin-capping and -severing activities but enhances actin-bundling activity. Regulates the intestinal epithelial cell morphology, cell invasion, cell migration and apoptosis. Protects against apoptosis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the gastrointestinal epithelium. Appears to regulate cell death by maintaining mitochondrial integrity. Enhances hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced epithelial cell motility, chemotaxis and wound repair. Upon S.flexneri cell infection, its actin-severing activity enhances actin-based motility of the bacteria and plays a role during the dissemination.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm, cytoskeleton. Cell projection, lamellipodium. Cell projection, ruffle. Cell projection, microvillus. Cell projection, filopodium tip. Cell projection, filopodium. Note=Relocalized in the tip of cellular protrusions and filipodial extensions upon infection with S.flexneri in primary intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and in the tail-like structures forming the actin comets of S.flexneri. Redistributed to the leading edge of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-induced lamellipodia (By similarity). Rapidly redistributed to ruffles and lamellipodia structures in response to autotaxin, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment.|
|Tissue Location||Specifically expressed in epithelial cells. Major component of microvilli of intestinal epithelial cells and kidney proximal tubule cells. Expressed in canalicular microvilli of hepatocytes (at protein level).|
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Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomal proteins are encoded by nuclear genes and help in protein synthesis within the mitochondrion. Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% protein to rRNA composition compared to prokaryotic ribosomes, where this ratio is reversed. Another difference between mammalian mitoribosomes and prokaryotic ribosomes is that the latter contain a 5S rRNA. Among different species, the proteins comprising the mitoribosome differ greatly in sequence, and sometimes in biochemical properties, which prevents easy recognition by sequence homology. This gene encodes a protein identified as belonging to both the 28S and the 39S subunits. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. Pseudogenes corresponding to this gene are found on chromosomes 4q, 6p, 6q, 7p, and 15q. ; ;
1. Cancer Sci. 2012 Aug;103(8):1493-501.2. Cancer Biol Ther. 2011 Aug 1;12(3):181-90.
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