- CITATIONS: 2
|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E|
|Other Accession||Q641Y5, Q9D906, Q5ZKY2|
|Calculated MW||77960 Da|
|Antigen Region||540-569 aa|
|Other Names||Ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme ATG7, ATG12-activating enzyme E1 ATG7, Autophagy-related protein 7, APG7-like, hAGP7, Ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like protein, ATG7, APG7L|
|Target/Specificity||This ATG7 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 540-569 amino acids from the C-terminal region of human ATG7.|
|Format||Purified polyclonal antibody supplied in PBS with 0.09% (W/V) sodium azide. This antibody is purified through a protein A column, followed by peptide affinity purification.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 2 weeks. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||ATG7 Antibody (C-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||E1-like activating enzyme involved in the 2 ubiquitin- like systems required for cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy. Activates ATG12 for its conjugation with ATG5 as well as the ATG8 family proteins for their conjugation with phosphatidylethanolamine. Both systems are needed for the ATG8 association to Cvt vesicles and autophagosomes membranes. Required for autophagic death induced by caspase-8 inhibition. Required for mitophagy which contributes to regulate mitochondrial quantity and quality by eliminating the mitochondria to a basal level to fulfill cellular energy requirements and preventing excess ROS production. Modulates p53/TP53 activity to regulate cell cycle and survival during metabolic stress. Plays also a key role in the maintenance of axonal homeostasis, the prevention of axonal degeneration, the maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells, the formation of Paneth cell granules, as well as in adipose differentiation.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Preautophagosomal structure. Note=Localizes also to discrete punctae along the ciliary axoneme and to the base of the ciliary axoneme|
|Tissue Location||Widely expressed, especially in kidney, liver, lymph nodes and bone marrow.|
Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Macroautophagy is the major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). APG7 functions as an E1 enzyme essential for multisubstrates such as GABARAPL1 and ATG12. APG3L is an E2-like conjugating enzyme facilitating covalent binding of APG8 (MAP1LC3) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). APG7 (an E1-like enzyme) facilitates this reaction by forming an E1-E2 complex with APG3. Formation of the PE conjugate is essential for autophagy.
References for protein:
1.Baehrecke EH. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):505-10. (2005)
2Lum JJ, et al. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):439-48. (2005)
3.Greenberg JT. Dev Cell. 8(6):799-801. (2005)
4.Levine B. Cell. 120(2):159-62. (2005)
5.Shintani T and Klionsky DJ. Science. 306(5698):990-5. (2004)
6.Tanida I., et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 292:256-262(2002)
7.Tanida I., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 277:13739-13744(2002)
References for U251 cell line:
1. Westermark B.; Pontén J.; Hugosson R. (1973).” Determinants for the establishment of permanent tissue culture lines from human gliomas”. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 81:791-805. [PMID: 4359449].
2. Pontén, J.,Westermark B. (1978).” Properties of Human Malignant Glioma Cells in Vitro”. Medical Biology 56: 184-193.[PMID: 359950].
3. Geng Y.;Kohli L.; Klocke B.J.; Roth K.A.(2010). “Chloroquine-induced autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death in glioma cells is p53 independent”. Neuro Oncol. 12(5): 473–481.[ PMID: 20406898].
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