- CITATIONS: 4
|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E|
|Calculated MW||15113 Da|
|Antigen Region||1-30 aa|
|Other Names||Ubiquitin-like protein ATG12, Autophagy-related protein 12, APG12-like, ATG12, APG12, APG12L|
|Target/Specificity||This ATG12 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 1-30 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human ATG12.|
|Format||Purified polyclonal antibody supplied in PBS with 0.09% (W/V) sodium azide. This antibody is purified through a protein A column, followed by peptide affinity purification.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 2 weeks. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||ATG12 Antibody (N-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Ubiquitin-like protein involved in autophagy vesicles formation. Conjugation with ATG5 through a ubiquitin-like conjugating system involving also ATG7 as an E1-like activating enzyme and ATG10 as an E2-like conjugating enzyme, is essential for its function. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate acts as an E3-like enzyme which is required for lipidation of ATG8 family proteins and their association to the vesicle membranes. The ATG12-ATG5 conjugate also regulates negatively the innate antiviral immune response by blocking the type I IFN production pathway through direct association with RARRES3 and MAVS. Plays also a role in translation or delivery of incoming viral RNA to the translation apparatus.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Preautophagosomal structure membrane; Peripheral membrane protein. Note=TECPR1 recruits the ATG12-ATG5 conjugate to the autolysosomal membrane|
Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Macroautophagy is the major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). APG12L is the human homolog of yeast APG12, a ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like protein essential for the conjugation system that mediates membrane fusion in autophagy.
References for protein:
1.Yee, K.S. et al. Cell Death Differ. August; 16(8): 1135?145.(2009)
2.Baehrecke EH. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):505-10. (2005)
3.Lum JJ, et al. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):439-48. (2005)
4.Greenberg JT. Dev Cell. 8(6):799-801. (2005)
5.Levine B. Cell. 120(2):159-62. (2005)
6.Shintani T and Klionsky DJ. Science. 306(5698):990-5. (2004)
References for U251 cell line:
1. Westermark B.; Pontén J.; Hugosson R. (1973).” Determinants for the establishment of permanent tissue culture lines from human gliomas”. Acta Pathol Microbiol Scand A. 81:791-805. [PMID: 4359449].
2. Pontén, J.,Westermark B. (1978).” Properties of Human Malignant Glioma Cells in Vitro”. Medical Biology 56: 184-193.[PMID: 359950].
3. Geng Y.;Kohli L.; Klocke B.J.; Roth K.A.(2010). “Chloroquine-induced autophagic vacuole accumulation and cell death in glioma cells is p53 independent”. Neuro Oncol. 12(5): 473–481.[ PMID: 20406898].
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