- CITATIONS: 24
|Application ||IHC-P, WB, IF, E|
|Calculated MW||46469 Da|
|Antigen Region||382-410 aa|
|Other Names||[Pyruvate dehydrogenase (acetyl-transferring)] kinase isozyme 4, mitochondrial, Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 4, PDK4, PDHK4|
|Target/Specificity||This PDK4 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 382-410 amino acids from the C-terminal region of human PDK4.|
|Format||Purified polyclonal antibody supplied in PBS with 0.09% (W/V) sodium azide. This antibody is purified through a protein A column, followed by peptide affinity purification.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 2 weeks. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||PDK4 Antibody (C-term) is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Kinase that plays a key role in regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and homeostasis via phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits PDHA1 and PDHA2. This inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, and thereby regulates metabolite flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, down-regulates aerobic respiration and inhibits the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from pyruvate. Inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase decreases glucose utilization and increases fat metabolism in response to prolonged fasting and starvation. Plays an important role in maintaining normal blood glucose levels under starvation, and is involved in the insulin signaling cascade. Via its regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, plays an important role in maintaining normal blood pH and in preventing the accumulation of ketone bodies under starvation. In the fed state, mediates cellular responses to glucose levels and to a high-fat diet. Regulates both fatty acid oxidation and de novo fatty acid biosynthesis. Plays a role in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Protects detached epithelial cells against anoikis. Plays a role in cell proliferation via its role in regulating carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism.|
|Cellular Location||Mitochondrion matrix.|
|Tissue Location||Ubiquitous; highest levels of expression in heart and skeletal muscle.|
Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
PDK4 inhibits the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by phosphorylation of the E1 alpha subunit, thus contributing to the regulation of glucose metabolism.
References for protein:
1. Rosa, G., et al., Obes. Res. 11(2):176-182 (2003).
2.Razeghi, P., et al., Cardiology 97(4):203-209 (2002).
3.Rowles, J., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 271(37):22376-22382 (1996).
4.Gudi, R., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 270(48):28989-28994 (1995).
References for HeLa cell line:
1. Scherer WF, Syverton JT, Gey GO (May 1953). "Studies on the propagation in vitro of poliomyelitis viruses. IV. Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells (strain HeLa) derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix". J. Exp. Med. 97 (5): 695–710. [PubMed:13052828].
2. Macville M, Schröck E, Padilla-Nash H, Keck C, Ghadimi BM, Zimonjic D, Popescu N, Ried T (January 1999). "Comprehensive and definitive molecular cytogenetic characterization of HeLa cells by spectral karyotyping". Cancer Res. 59 (1): 141–50. [PubMed: 9892199].
3. Rahbari R, Sheahan T, Modes V, Collier P, Macfarlane C, Badge RM (April 2009). "A novel L1 retrotransposon marker for HeLa cell line identification". BioTechniques 46 (4): 277–84. [PubMed: 19450234].
4. Capes-Davis A, Theodosopoulos G, Atkin I, Drexler HG, Kohara A, MacLeod RA, Masters JR, Nakamura Y, Reid YA, Reddel RR, Freshney RI (July 2010). "Check your cultures! A list of cross-contaminated or misidentified cell lines". Int. J. Cancer 127 (1): 1–8. [PubMed:20143388].
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