|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E|
|Other Accession||NP_056179, 223555998|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||18546 Da|
|Application Notes||MD-2 antibody can be used for detection of MD-2 by Western blot at 0.5 to 2 µg/mL. Antibody can also be used for immunohistochemistry starting at 2 µg/mL. For immunofluorescence start at 10 µg/mL.|
|Other Names||MD-2 Antibody: MD2, MD-2, ly-96, ESOP-1, ESOP1, MD2, Lymphocyte antigen 96, Ly-96, lymphocyte antigen 96|
|Reconstitution & Storage||MD-2 antibody can be stored at 4℃ for three months and -20℃, stable for up to one year. As with all antibodies care should be taken to avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles. Antibodies should not be exposed to prolonged high temperatures.|
|Precautions||MD-2 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response to cell wall components from Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11160242, PubMed:11593030). Enhances TLR4-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B (PubMed:10359581). Cells expressing both LY96 and TLR4, but not TLR4 alone, respond to LPS (PubMed:10359581).|
|Cellular Location||Secreted, extracellular space. Secreted. Note=Retained in the extracellular space at the cell surface by interaction with TLR4 (PubMed:10359581).|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
MD-2 Antibody: MD-2 is a member of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) family, a group of proteins that include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are signaling molecules that recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR4, the major signaling receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), requires the binding of MD-2 to its extracellular region for maximal response to LPS. The specificity of this response is determined by the species of MD-2; e.g., human MD-2 can cause mouse TLR4 to react to LPS analogs that are normally antagonistic to human but not mouse TLR4.
O’Neill LAJ, Fitzgerald FA, and Bowie AG. The Toll-IL-1 receptor adaptor family grows to five members. Trends in Imm. 2003; 24:286-9.
Vogel SN, Fitzgerald KA, and Fenton MJ. TLRs: differential adapter utilization by toll-like receptors mediates TLR-specific patterns of gene expression. Mol. Interv. 2003; 3:466-77.
Takeda K, Kaisho T, and Akira S. Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2003; 21:335-76.
Janeway CA Jr and Medzhitov R. Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2002; 20:197-216.
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