|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E|
|Other Accession||NP_444283, 76159293|
|Reactivity||Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Calculated MW||27130 Da|
|Application Notes||THEM4 antibody can be used for detection of THEM4 by Western blot at 1 - 2 µg/mL. Antibody can also be used for immunohistochemistry starting at 2.5 µg/mL. For immunofluorescence start at 20 µg/mL.|
|Target/Specificity||THEM4; The additional higher molecular weight bands seen in the immunoblot may represent post-translationally modified TMEM4.|
|Reconstitution & Storage||THEM4 antibody can be stored at 4℃ for three months and -20℃, stable for up to one year. As with all antibodies care should be taken to avoid repeated freeze thaw cycles. Antibodies should not be exposed to prolonged high temperatures.|
|Precautions||THEM4 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Has acyl-CoA thioesterase activity towards medium and long-chain (C14 to C18) fatty acyl-CoA substrates, and probably plays an role in mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. Plays a role in the apoptotic process, possibly via its regulation of AKT1 activity. According to PubMed:11598301, inhibits AKT1 phosphorylation and activity. According to PubMed:17615157, enhances AKT1 activity by favoring its phosphorylation and translocation to plasma membrane.|
|Cellular Location||Cell membrane. Cell projection, ruffle membrane Cytoplasm. Mitochondrion. Mitochondrion inner membrane; Peripheral membrane protein Mitochondrion intermembrane space. Note=Released from the mitochondria into the cytosol in response to apoptotic stimuli|
|Tissue Location||Expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle, testis, uterus, brain and kidney. Down-regulated in glioblastoma or glioma compared to non-neoplastic brain due to promoter hypermethylation.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
THEM4 Antibody: THEM4, also known as CTMP, binds specifically to the carboxy-terminal regulatory domain of PKB/Akt at the plasma membrane and acts as a negative regulator, reversing the phenotype of v-Akt-transformed cells. Hypermethylation of the THEM4 promoter and transcriptional downregulation of the gene has been reported in multiple glioblastomas, suggesting that epigenetic regulation of THEM4 may play a role in the progression of this cancer. Bioinformatic analysis, confirmed by in vitro testing, indicates that THEM4 is a broad-range, high activity acyl-CoA thioesterase. Recent reports have also indicated that TMEM4 is a mitochondrial protein whose overexpression is associated with an increase in mitochondrial membrane depolarization and caspase-3 and PARP cleavage, suggesting that THEM4 is involved in the apoptotic program.
Maira SM, Galetic I, Brazil DP, et al. Carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), a negative regulator of PKB/Akt and v-Akt at the plasma membrane. Science2001; 294:374-80.
Knobbe CB, Reifberger J, Blaschke B, et al. Hypermethylation and transcriptional downregulation of the carboxyl-terminal modulator protein gene in glioblastomas. J. Natl. Cancer Inst.2004; 96:483-6.
Zhao H, Martin BM, Bisoffi M, et al. The Akt C-terminal modulator protein is an acyl-CoA thioesterase of the hotdog-fold family. Biochemistry2009; 48:5507-9.
Parcellier A, Tintignac LA, Zhuravleva E, et al. Carboxy-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) is a mitochondrial protein that sensitizes cells to apoptosis. Cell Signal.2009; 21:639-50.
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