|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E|
|Other Accession||NP_004553, 169790969|
|Calculated MW||Predicted: 51 kDa |
Observed: 55 kDa
|Application Notes||PARK2 antibody can be used for detection of PARK2 by Western blot at 1 - 2 µg/ml. Antibody can also be used for Immunohistochemistry starting at 5 µg/mL. For immunofluorescence start at 20 µg/mL.|
|Target/Specificity||PARK2; PARK2 antibody is human specific.|
|Reconstitution & Storage||PARK2 antibody can be stored at 4℃ for three months and -20℃, stable for up to one year.|
|Precautions||PARK2 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins, such as BCL2, SYT11, CCNE1, GPR37, RHOT1/MIRO1, MFN1, MFN2, STUB1, SNCAIP, SEPT5, TOMM20, USP30, ZNF746 and AIMP2 (PubMed:10973942, PubMed:10888878, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:12150907, PubMed:12628165, PubMed:16135753, PubMed:21376232, PubMed:23754282, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24660806, PubMed:24751536). Mediates monoubiquitination as well as 'Lys-6', 'Lys-11', 'Lys-48'-linked and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of substrates depending on the context (PubMed:19229105, PubMed:20889974, PubMed:25621951). Participates in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein by mediating 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins such as PARK7: 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins are then recognized by HDAC6, leading to their recruitment to aggresomes, followed by degradation (PubMed:17846173, PubMed:19229105). Mediates 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitination of a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, possibly playing a role in Lewy-body formation (PubMed:11590439, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:19229105, PubMed:11590439, PubMed:15728840). Mediates monoubiquitination of BCL2, thereby acting as a positive regulator of autophagy (PubMed:20889974). Promotes the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria (mitophagy) by promoting the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins such as TOMM20, RHOT1/MIRO1 and USP30 (PubMed:19029340, PubMed:19966284, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24896179, PubMed:25527291). Preferentially assembles 'Lys-6'-, 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains following mitochondrial damage, leading to mitophagy (PubMed:25621951). Mediates 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination of ZNF746, followed by degradation of ZNF746 by the proteasome; possibly playing a role in the regulation of neuron death (PubMed:21376232). Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regulates cyclin-E during neuronal apoptosis. In collaboration with CHPF isoform 2, may enhance cell viability and protect cells from oxidative stress (PubMed:22082830). Independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity, protects from apoptosis by the transcriptional repression of p53/TP53 (PubMed:19801972). May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity (PubMed:11439185). May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion. Note=Mainly localizes in the cytosol. Co-localizes with SYT11 in neutrites. Co-localizes with SNCAIP in brainstem Lewy bodies. Mitochondrial localization gradually increases with cellular growth. Also relocates to dysfunctional mitochondria that have lost the mitochondrial membrane potential; recruitment to mitochondria is PINK1- dependent|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in the brain including the substantia nigra. Expressed in heart, testis and skeletal muscle Expression is down-regulated or absent in tumor biopsies, and absent in the brain of PARK2 patients. Overexpression protects dopamine neurons from kainate-mediated apoptosis. Found in serum (at protein level).|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease whose symptoms include tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability (1). Mutations in the PARK2 gene are known to cause Parkinson disease and autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease (2). The PARK2 protein is a component of a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that mediates the targeting of substrate proteins for proteasomal degradation (3). Recent studies have suggested that PARK2 expression reduces the mitochondrial accumulation of the apoptosis protein Bax under basal conditions and directly ubiquitinates Bax, thereby promoting cell survival (4).
Dauer W and Przedborski S. Parkinson’s disease: Mechanisms and models. Neuron 2003; 39:889-909.
Kitada T, Asakawa S, Hattori N, et al. Mutations in the parkin gene cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Nature 1998; 392:605-8.
Shimura H, Hattori N, Kubo Si, et al. Familial Parkinson disease gene product, parkin, is a ubiquitin-protein ligase. Nat. Genet. 2000; 25:302-5.
Johnson BN, Berger AK, Cortese GP, et al. The ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin regulates the proapoptotic function of Bax. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2012; 109:6283-88.
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