|Application ||WB, IHC-P, IF, E|
|Other Accession||NP_056179, 223555998|
|Calculated MW||18546 Da|
|Application Notes||MD-2 antibody can be used for detection of MD-2 by Western blot at 1 µg/mL. Antibody can also be used for immunohistochemistry starting at 2.5 µg/mL. For immunofluorescence start at 20 µg/mL.|
|Reconstitution & Storage||MD-2 monoclonal antibody can be stored at -20℃, stable for one year.|
|Precautions||MD-2 Antibody [9F1B1] is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response to cell wall components from Gram- positive and Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11160242, PubMed:11593030). Enhances TLR4-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B (PubMed:10359581). Cells expressing both LY96 and TLR4, but not TLR4 alone, respond to LPS (PubMed:10359581).|
|Cellular Location||Secreted, extracellular space. Secreted. Note=Retained in the extracellular space at the cell surface by interaction with TLR4 (PubMed:10359581).|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
MD-2 Monoclonal Antibody: MD-2 is a member of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) family, a group of proteins that include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLRs are signaling molecules that recognize different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and serve as an important link between the innate and adaptive immune responses. TLR4, the major signaling receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), requires the binding of MD-2 to its extracellular region for maximal response to LPS. The specificity of this response is determined by the species of MD-2; e.g., human MD-2 transfected into mouse cells can cause mouse TLR4 to react to LPS analogs that are normally antagonistic to human but not mouse TLR4.
O’Neill LAJ, Fitzgerald FA, and Bowie AG. The Toll-IL-1 receptor adaptor family grows to five members. Trends in Imm. 2003; 24:286-9.
Vogel SN, Fitzgerald KA, and Fenton MJ. TLRs: differential adapter utilization by toll-like receptors mediates TLR-specific patterns of gene expression. Mol. Interv. 2003; 3:466-77.
Takeda K, Kaisho T, and Akira S. Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2003; 21:335-76.
Janeway CA Jr and Medzhitov R. Innate immune recognition. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 2002; 20:197-216.
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