|Other Names||Gremlin-1, Cell proliferation-inducing gene 2 protein, Cysteine knot superfamily 1, BMP antagonist 1, DAN domain family member 2, Down-regulated in Mos-transformed cells protein, Increased in high glucose protein 2, IHG-2, GREM1, CKTSF1B1, DAND2, DRM|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||CKTSF1B1, DAND2, DRM|
|Function||Cytokine that may play an important role during carcinogenesis and metanephric kidney organogenesis, as a BMP antagonist required for early limb outgrowth and patterning in maintaining the FGF4-SHH feedback loop. Down-regulates the BMP4 signaling in a dose-dependent manner (By similarity). Antagonist of BMP2; inhibits BMP2-mediated differentiation of osteoblasts (in vitro) (PubMed:27036124). Acts as inhibitor of monocyte chemotaxis. Can inhibit the growth or viability of normal cells but not transformed cells when is overexpressed (By similarity).|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in small intestine, fetal brain and colon. Expression is restricted to intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs) at the crypt base. In subjects with HMPS1, by contrast, GREM1 is expressed, not only in basal ISEMFs, but also at very high levels in epithelial cells (predominantly colonocytes), with expression extending most of the way up the sides of the crypt. Weakly expressed in brain, ovary, prostate, pancreas and skeletal muscle. In brain found in the region localized around the internal capsule in the large subcortical nuclei, including caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, thalamus and subthalamus. Predominantly expressed in normal cells including neurons, astrocytes and fibroblasts|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
This gene encodes a member of the BMP (bone morphogenicprotein) antagonist family. Like BMPs, BMP antagonists containcystine knots and typically form homo- and heterodimers. The CAN(cerberus and dan) subfamily of BMP antagonists, to which this genebelongs, is characterized by a C-terminal cystine knot with aneight-membered ring. The antagonistic effect of the secretedglycosylated protein encoded by this gene is likely due to itsdirect binding to BMP proteins. As an antagonist of BMP, this genemay play a role in regulating organogenesis, body patterning, andtissue differentiation. In mouse, this protein has been shown torelay the sonic hedgehog (SHH) signal from the polarizing region tothe apical ectodermal ridge during limb bud outgrowth.Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding differentisoforms have been found for this gene.
Kupfer, S.S., et al. Gastroenterology 139(5):1677-1685(2010)Dimitrov, B.I., et al. J. Med. Genet. 47(8):569-574(2010)McKnight, A.J., et al. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 21(5):773-781(2010)van Vlodrop, I.J., et al. Am. J. Pathol. 176(2):575-584(2010)Mangold, E., et al. Nat. Genet. 42(1):24-26(2010)
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