|Other Names||Transforming growth factor beta-1, TGF-beta-1, Latency-associated peptide, LAP, TGFB1, TGFB|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Multifunctional protein that controls proliferation, differentiation and other functions in many cell types. Many cells synthesize TGFB1 and have specific receptors for it. It positively and negatively regulates many other growth factors. It plays an important role in bone remodeling as it is a potent stimulator of osteoblastic bone formation, causing chemotaxis, proliferation and differentiation in committed osteoblasts (By similarity). Stimulates sustained production of collagen through the activation of CREB3L1 by regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) (PubMed:25310401). Can promote either T-helper 17 cells (Th17) or regulatory T-cells (Treg) lineage differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner. At high concentrations, leads to FOXP3-mediated suppression of RORC and down-regulation of IL-17 expression, favoring Treg cell development. At low concentrations in concert with IL-6 and IL-21, leads to expression of the IL-17 and IL-23 receptors, favoring differentiation to Th17 cells. Mediates SMAD2/3 activation by inducing its phosphorylation and subsequent translocation to the nucleus (PubMed:25893292). Can induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell migration in various cell types (PubMed:25893292).|
|Cellular Location||Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in bone. Abundantly expressed in articular cartilage and chondrocytes and is increased in osteoarthritis (OA). Colocalizes with ASPN in chondrocytes within OA lesions of articular cartilage.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
TGFB1 is a member of the transforming growthfactor beta (TGFB) family of cytokines, which are multifunctionalpeptides that regulate proliferation, differentiation, adhesion,migration, and other functions in many cell types. Many cells haveTGFB receptors, and the protein positively and negatively regulatesmany other growth factors. The secreted protein is cleaved into alatency-associated peptide (LAP) and a mature TGFB1 peptide, and isfound in either a latent form composed of a TGFB1 homodimer, a LAPhomodimer, and a latent TGFB1-binding protein, or in an active formcomposed of a TGFB1 homodimer. The mature peptide may also formheterodimers with other TGFB family members. This gene isfrequently upregulated in tumor cells, and mutations in this generesult in Camurati-Engelmann disease.
Perez, A.B., et al. Hum. Immunol. 71(11):1135-1140(2010)Xu, Z., et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 401(3):376-381(2010)Bran, G.M., et al. Anticancer Res. 30(9):3459-3463(2010)Zauli, G., et al. Blood 80(12):3036-3043(1992)Wrana, J.L., et al. Cell 71(6):1003-1014(1992)
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