|Other Names||DNA dC->dU-editing enzyme APOBEC-3G, 354-, APOBEC-related cytidine deaminase, APOBEC-related protein, ARCD, APOBEC-related protein 9, ARP-9, CEM-15, CEM15, Deoxycytidine deaminase, A3G, APOBEC3G|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP1351d was selected from the C-term region of human CEM15. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||DNA deaminase (cytidine deaminase) which acts as an inhibitor of retrovirus replication and retrotransposon mobility via deaminase-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Exhibits potent antiviral activity against vif-deficient HIV-1. After the penetration of retroviral nucleocapsids into target cells of infection and the initiation of reverse transcription, it can induce the conversion of cytosine to uracil in the minus-sense single-strand viral DNA, leading to G-to-A hypermutations in the subsequent plus-strand viral DNA. The resultant detrimental levels of mutations in the proviral genome, along with a deamination- independent mechanism that works prior to the proviral integration, together exert efficient antiretroviral effects in infected target cells. Selectively targets single-stranded DNA and does not deaminate double-stranded DNA or single-or double- stranded RNA. Exhibits antiviral activity also against simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs), hepatitis B virus (HBV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), xenotropic MuLV-related virus (XMRV) and simian foamy virus (SFV). May inhibit the mobility of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, P-body. Note=Mainly cytoplasmic. Small amount are found in the nucleus During HIV-1 infection, virion-encapsidated in absence of HIV-1 VIF|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in spleen, testes, ovary and peripheral blood leukocytes and CD4+ lymphocytes. Also expressed in non-permissive peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and several tumor cell lines; no expression detected in permissive lymphoid and non-lymphoid cell lines. Exists only in the LMM form in peripheral blood-derived resting CD4 T-cells and monocytes, both of which are refractory to HIV-1 infection. LMM is converted to a HMM complex when resting CD4 T-cells are activated or when monocytes are induced to differentiate into macrophages. This change correlates with increased susceptibility of these cells to HIV-1 infection.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
CEM15 is a member of the cytidine deaminase family. It is the product of one of seven related genes or pseudogenes found in a cluster, thought to result from gene duplication, on chromosome 22. Members of the cluster encode proteins that are structurally and functionally related to the C to U RNA-editing cytidine deaminase APOBEC1. It is thought that the proteins may be RNA editing enzymes and have roles in growth or cell cycle control. CEM15 has been found to be a specific inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infectivity.
Kao, S., et al., J. Virol. 77(21):11398-11407 (2003).Stopak, K., et al., Mol. Cell 12(3):591-601 (2003).Mangeat, B., et al., Nature 424(6944):99-103 (2003).Zhang, H., et al., Nature 424(6944):94-98 (2003).Wedekind, J.E., et al., Trends Genet. 19(4):207-216 (2003).
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