|Other Names||G1/S-specific cyclin-D2, CCND2|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Regulatory component of the cyclin D2-CDK4 (DC) complex that phosphorylates and inhibits members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulates the cell-cycle during G(1)/S transition. Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complex and the subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G(1) phase. Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G(1) phase. Cyclin D-CDK4 complexes are major integrators of various mitogenenic and antimitogenic signals. Also substrate for SMAD3, phosphorylating SMAD3 in a cell-cycle-dependent manner and repressing its transcriptional activity. Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D2/CDK4/CDKN1B, required for nuclear translocation and activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex (By similarity).|
|Cellular Location||Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Membrane. Note=Cyclin D-CDK4 complexes accumulate at the nuclear membrane and are then translocated into the nucleus through interaction with KIP/CIP family members|
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The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the highlyconserved cyclin family, whose members are characterized by adramatic periodicity in protein abundance through the cell cycle.Cyclins function as regulators of CDK kinases. Different cyclinsexhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns whichcontribute to the temporal coordination of each mitotic event. Thiscyclin forms a complex with and functions as a regulatory subunitof CDK4 or CDK6, whose activity is required for cell cycle G1/Stransition. This protein has been shown to interact with and beinvolved in the phosphorylation of tumor suppressor protein Rb.Knockout studies of the homologous gene in mouse suggest theessential roles of this gene in ovarian granulosa and germ cellproliferation. High level expression of this gene was observed inovarian and testicular tumors.
Shimada, M., et al. Hum. Genet. 128(4):433-441(2010)Park, T.J., et al. J. Hum. Genet. 55(7):416-420(2010)Kamatani, Y., et al. Nat. Genet. 42(3):210-215(2010)Johnatty, S.E., et al. PLoS Genet. 6 (7), E1001016 (2010) :Kosmaczewska, A., et al. Oncol. Res. 18 (2-3), 127-131 (2009) :
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