|Other Names||Mitogen-activated protein kinase 9, MAP kinase 9, MAPK 9, Stress-activated protein kinase JNK2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2, Mapk9, Jnk2, Prkm9|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, transformation and programmed cell death. Extracellular stimuli such as proinflammatory cytokines or physical stress stimulate the stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAP/JNK) signaling pathway. In this cascade, two dual specificity kinases MAP2K4/MKK4 and MAP2K7/MKK7 phosphorylate and activate MAPK9/JNK2. In turn, MAPK9/JNK2 phosphorylates a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In response to oxidative or ribotoxic stresses, inhibits rRNA synthesis by phosphorylating and inactivating the RNA polymerase 1-specific transcription initiation factor RRN3. Promotes stressed cell apoptosis by phosphorylating key regulatory factors including TP53 and YAP1. In T-cells, MAPK8 and MAPK9 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells. Upon T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, is activated by CARMA1, BCL10, MAP2K7 and MAP3K7/TAK1 to regulate JUN protein levels. Plays an important role in the osmotic stress-induced epithelial tight-junctions disruption. When activated, promotes beta-catenin/CTNNB1 degradation and inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Participates also in neurite growth in spiral ganglion neurons. Phosphorylates the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer and plays a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (PubMed:22441692).|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus|
|Tissue Location||All four isoforms are widely distributed in brain. Isoforms alpha-1 and alpha-2 are predominantly expressed in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, caudate-putamen, amygdala and the granule layer of the cerebellum. Alpha-1 is more abundant than alpha-2 in the periaqueductal region and the substantia nigra|
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Mapk9 responds to activation by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as c-Jun and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity. In T-cells, JNK1 and JNK2 are required for polarized differentiation of T-helper cells into Th1 cells.
Sherrin, T., et al. J. Neurosci. 30(40):13348-13361(2010)Yeap, Y.Y., et al. Biochem. J. 430(2):345-354(2010)Samak, G., et al. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 299 (3), G572-G584 (2010) :Cao, Y., et al. Immunol. Lett. 132 (1-2), 38-44 (2010) :Cellurale, C., et al. PLoS ONE 5 (8), E12469 (2010) :
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