|Other Names||Lysyl oxidase homolog 2, Lysyl oxidase-like protein 2, Lysyl oxidase-related protein 2, Lysyl oxidase-related protein WS9-14, LOXL2|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Mediates the post-translational oxidative deamination of lysine residues on target proteins leading to the formation of deaminated lysine (allysine) (PubMed:27735137). Acts as a transcription corepressor and specifically mediates deamination of trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation (PubMed:27735137). Shows no activity against histone H3 when it is trimethylated on 'Lys-9' (H3K9me3) or 'Lys-27' (H3K27me3) or when 'Lys-4' is monomethylated (H3K4me1) or dimethylated (H3K4me2) (PubMed:27735137). Also mediates deamination of methylated TAF10, a member of the transcription factor IID (TFIID) complex, which induces release of TAF10 from promoters, leading to inhibition of TFIID-dependent transcription (PubMed:25959397). LOXL2-mediated deamination of TAF10 results in transcriptional repression of genes required for embryonic stem cell pluripotency including POU5F1/OCT4, NANOG, KLF4 and SOX2 (By similarity). Involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) via interaction with SNAI1 and participates in repression of E-cadherin CDH1, probably by mediating deamination of histone H3 (PubMed:16096638, PubMed:27735137, PubMed:24414204). During EMT, involved with SNAI1 in negatively regulating pericentromeric heterochromatin transcription (PubMed:24239292). SNAI1 recruits LOXL2 to pericentromeric regions to oxidize histone H3 and repress transcription which leads to release of heterochromatin component CBX5/HP1A, enabling chromatin reorganization and acquisition of mesenchymal traits (PubMed:24239292). Interacts with the endoplasmic reticulum protein HSPA5 which activates the IRE1-XBP1 pathway of the unfolded protein response, leading to expression of several transcription factors involved in EMT and subsequent EMT induction (PubMed:28332555). Involved in E-cadherin repression following hypoxia, a hallmark of EMT believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness, suggesting that it may play a role in tumor progression (PubMed:20026874). When secreted into the extracellular matrix, promotes cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins by mediating oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin (PubMed:20306300). Acts as a regulator of sprouting angiogenesis, probably via collagen IV scaffolding (PubMed:21835952). Acts as a regulator of chondrocyte differentiation, probably by regulating expression of factors that control chondrocyte differentiation (By similarity).|
|Cellular Location||Secreted, extracellular space, extracellular matrix, basement membrane. Nucleus Chromosome. Endoplasmic reticulum. Note=Associated with chromatin (PubMed:27735137). It is unclear how LOXL2 is nuclear as it contains a signal sequence and has been shown to be secreted (PubMed:23319596). However, a number of reports confirm its intracellular location and its key role in transcription regulation (PubMed:22204712, PubMed:22483618)|
|Tissue Location||Expressed in many tissues (PubMed:10212285). Highest expression in reproductive tissues, placenta, uterus and prostate (PubMed:10212285). In esophageal epithelium, expressed in the basal, prickle and granular cell layers (PubMed:22204712). Up- regulated in a number of cancers cells and tissues|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase genefamily. The prototypic member of the family is essential to thebiogenesis of connective tissue, encoding an extracellularcopper-dependent amine oxidase that catalyses the first step in theformation of crosslinks in collagens and elastin. A highlyconserved amino acid sequence at the C-terminus end appears to besufficient for amine oxidase activity, suggesting that each familymember may retain this function. The N-terminus is poorly conservedand may impart additional roles in developmental regulation,senescence, tumor suppression, cell growth control, and chemotaxisto each member of the family.
Rodriguez, H.M., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 285(27):20964-20974(2010)Ruckert, F., et al. Int J Colorectal Dis 25(3):303-311(2010)Schietke, R., et al. J. Biol. Chem. 285(9):6658-6669(2010)Sano, M., et al. Int. J. Oncol. 36(2):321-330(2010)Kim, Y., et al. Oncol. Rep. 22(4):799-804(2009)
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