|Other Names||E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase synoviolin, 632-, Synovial apoptosis inhibitor 1, SYVN1, HRD1, KIAA1810|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP2184b was selected from the N-term region of human HRD1. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Acts as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase which accepts ubiquitin specifically from endoplasmic reticulum-associated UBC7 E2 ligase and transfers it to substrates, promoting their degradation. Component of the endoplasmic reticulum quality control (ERQC) system also called ER-associated degradation (ERAD) involved in ubiquitin-dependent degradation of misfolded endoplasmic reticulum proteins. Also promotes the degradation of normal but naturally short-lived proteins such as SGK. Protects cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis. Protects neurons from apoptosis induced by polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin (HTT) or unfolded GPR37 by promoting their degradation. Sequesters p53/TP53 in the cytoplasm and promotes its degradation, thereby negatively regulating its biological function in transcription, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis.|
|Cellular Location||Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Multi-pass membrane protein|
|Tissue Location||Ubiquitously expressed, with highest levels in liver and kidney (at protein level). Up-regulated in synovial tissues from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (at protein level).|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
HRD1 is a ubiquitin ligase whose expression is induced by the unfolded protein response (UPR) following endoplasmic reticulum stress. Expression of HRD1 protects cells from apoptosis by inducing degradation of abnormally processed proteins that accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum. HRD1 is expressed in many tissues, strongly expressed in brain, pancreas, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle. Synoviolin/Hrd1 (expressed in rheumatoid synovium) is reported to be a novel causative factor for arthropathy by triggering synovial cell outgrowth through its antiapoptotic effects. HRD1 contains one ring-type zinc finger.
Kikkert, M., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279(5):3525-3534 (2004).Amano, T., et al., Genes Dev. 17(19):2436-2449 (2003).Nadav, E., et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 303(1):91-97 (2003).Kaneko, M., et al., FEBS Lett. 532 (1-2), 147-152 (2002) (): ().
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