|Other Names||Protein PML, Promyelocytic leukemia protein, RING finger protein 71, Tripartite motif-containing protein 19, PML, MYL, PP8675, RNF71, TRIM19|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP2504a was selected from the region of a human PML Sumoylation site. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||MYL, PP8675, RNF71, TRIM19|
|Function||Functions via its association with PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in a wide range of important cellular processes, including tumor suppression, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, senescence, DNA damage response, and viral defense mechanisms. Acts as the scaffold of PML-NBs allowing other proteins to shuttle in and out, a process which is regulated by SUMO-mediated modifications and interactions. Isoform PML-4 has a multifaceted role in the regulation of apoptosis and growth suppression: activates RB1 and inhibits AKT1 via interactions with PP1 and PP2A phosphatases respectively, negatively affects the PI3K pathway by inhibiting MTOR and activating PTEN, and positively regulates p53/TP53 by acting at different levels (by promoting its acetylation and phosphorylation and by inhibiting its MDM2-dependent degradation). Isoform PML-4 also: acts as a transcriptional repressor of TBX2 during cellular senescence and the repression is dependent on a functional RBL2/E2F4 repressor complex, regulates double-strand break repair in gamma- irradiation-induced DNA damage responses via its interaction with WRN, acts as a negative regulator of telomerase by interacting with TERT, and regulates PER2 nuclear localization and circadian function. Isoform PML-6 inhibits specifically the activity of the tetrameric form of PKM. The nuclear isoforms (isoform PML-1, isoform PML-2, isoform PML-3, isoform PML-4 and isoform PML-5) in concert with SATB1 are involved in local chromatin-loop remodeling and gene expression regulation at the MHC-I locus. Isoform PML-2 is required for efficient IFN-gamma induced MHC II gene transcription via regulation of CIITA. Cytoplasmic PML is involved in the regulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway. PML also regulates transcription activity of ELF4 and can act as an important mediator for TNF-alpha- and IFN-alpha-mediated inhibition of endothelial cell network formation and migration.|
|Cellular Location||Nucleus. Nucleus, nucleoplasm. Cytoplasm. Nucleus, PML body. Nucleus, nucleolus. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Early endosome membrane; Peripheral membrane protein; Cytoplasmic side. Note=Isoform PML-1 can shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Isoform PML-2, isoform PML-3, isoform PML-4, isoform PML-5 and isoform PML-6 are nuclear isoforms whereas isoform PML-7 and isoform PML-14 lacking the nuclear localization signal are cytoplasmic isoforms. Detected in the nucleolus after DNA damage. Acetylation at Lys-487 is essential for its nuclear localization. Within the nucleus, most of PML is expressed in the diffuse nuclear fraction of the nucleoplasm and only a small fraction is found in the matrix-associated nuclear bodies (PML-NBs). The transfer of PML from the nucleoplasm to PML- NBs depends on its phosphorylation and sumoylation. The B1 box and the RING finger are also required for the localization in PML-NBs Also found in specific membrane structures termed mitochondria- associated membranes (MAMs) which connect the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the mitochondria. Sequestered in the cytoplasm by interaction with rabies virus phosphoprotein|
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PML is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. This phosphoprotein localizes to nuclear bodies where it functions as a transcription factor and tumor suppressor. Its expression is cell-cycle related and it regulates the p53 response to oncogenic signals. The gene is often involved in the translocation with the retinoic acid receptor alpha gene associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
Puccetti, E., et al., Oncogene 22(44):6900-6908 (2003).Favre, M., et al., J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 34(2):127-133 (2003).Kawai, T., et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 23(17):6174-6186 (2003).Louria-Hayon, I., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 278(35):33134-33141 (2003).Moller, A., et al., Cancer Res. 63(15):4310-4314 (2003).
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