|Other Names||Cysteine protease ATG4D, 3422-, AUT-like 4 cysteine endopeptidase, Autophagin-4, Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 4, Autophagy-related protein 4 homolog D, Cysteine protease ATG4D, mitochondrial, ATG4D, APG4D, AUTL4|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP3395a was selected from the region of human Phospho-APG4D-S341. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Cysteine protease ATG4D: Cysteine protease required for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy. Cleaves the C-terminal amino acid of ATG8 family proteins MAP1LC3 and GABARAPL2, to reveal a C-terminal glycine. Exposure of the glycine at the C-terminus is essential for ATG8 proteins conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and insertion to membranes, which is necessary for autophagy. Has also an activity of delipidating enzyme for the PE-conjugated forms.|
|Cellular Location||Cysteine protease ATG4D: Cytoplasm|
|Tissue Location||Mainly expressed in skeletal muscle and, to a lower extent, in testis.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Macroautophagy is the major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). APG4 is a cysteine protease required for autophagy, which cleaves the C-terminal part of either MAP1LC3, GABARAPL2 or GABARAP, allowing the liberation of form I. A subpopulation of form I is subsequently converted to a smaller form (form II). Form II, with a revealed C-terminal glycine, is considered to be the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-conjugated form, and has the capacity for the binding to autophagosomes.
Baehrecke EH. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):505-10. (2005) Lum JJ, et al. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 6(6):439-48. (2005) Greenberg JT. Dev Cell. 8(6):799-801. (2005) Levine B. Cell. 120(2):159-62. (2005) Shintani T and Klionsky DJ. Science. 306(5698):990-5. (2004)
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