|Other Names||Cysteine protease ATG4C, 3422-, AUT-like 3 cysteine endopeptidase, Autophagin-3, Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 3, Autophagy-related protein 4 homolog C, ATG4C, APG4C, AUTL1, AUTL3|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP3440a was selected from the region of human Phospho-APG4C-S398. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||Synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml DI water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||APG4C, AUTL1, AUTL3|
|Function||Cysteine protease required for the cytoplasm to vacuole transport (Cvt) and autophagy. Is not essential for autophagy development under normal conditions but is required for a proper autophagic response under stressful conditions such as prolonged starvation (By similarity). Cleaves the C-terminal amino acid of ATG8 family proteins MAP1LC3 and GABARAPL2, to reveal a C-terminal glycine. Exposure of the glycine at the C-terminus is essential for ATG8 proteins conjugation to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and insertion to membranes, which is necessary for autophagy. Has also an activity of delipidating enzyme for the PE-conjugated forms.|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in skeletal muscle, heart, liver and testis.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Autophagy is the process by which endogenous proteins and damaged organelles are destroyed intracellularly. Autophagy is postulated to be essential for cell homeostasis and cell remodeling during differentiation, metamorphosis, non-apoptotic cell death, and aging. Reduced levels of autophagy have been described in some malignant tumors, and a role for autophagy in controlling the unregulated cell growth linked to cancer has been proposed. This protein is a member of the autophagin protein family and is designated as a member of the C-54 family of cysteine proteases. APG4 is a cysteine protease required for autophagy, which cleaves the C-terminal part of either MAP1LC3, GABARAPL2 or GABARAP, allowing the liberation of form I. A subpopulation of form I is subsequently converted to a smaller form (form II). Form II, with a revealed C-terminal glycine, is considered to be the phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)-conjugated form, and has the capacity for the binding to autophagosomes.
Marino G., J. Biol. Chem. 278:3671-3678(2003).Ota T., Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004).The MGC Project Team, Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004).
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