|Other Names||E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase parkin, 632-, Parkinson juvenile disease protein 2, Parkinson disease protein 2, PARK2, PRKN|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP6402b was selected from the Parkin region of human PARK2 (Parkin). A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Functions within a multiprotein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins, such as BCL2, SYT11, CCNE1, GPR37, RHOT1/MIRO1, MFN1, MFN2, STUB1, SNCAIP, SEPT5, TOMM20, USP30, ZNF746 and AIMP2 (PubMed:10973942, PubMed:10888878, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:12150907, PubMed:12628165, PubMed:16135753, PubMed:21376232, PubMed:23754282, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24660806, PubMed:24751536). Mediates monoubiquitination as well as 'Lys-6', 'Lys-11', 'Lys-48'-linked and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of substrates depending on the context (PubMed:19229105, PubMed:20889974, PubMed:25621951). Participates in the removal and/or detoxification of abnormally folded or damaged protein by mediating 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of misfolded proteins such as PARK7: 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitinated misfolded proteins are then recognized by HDAC6, leading to their recruitment to aggresomes, followed by degradation (PubMed:17846173, PubMed:19229105). Mediates 'Lys-63'- linked polyubiquitination of a 22 kDa O-linked glycosylated isoform of SNCAIP, possibly playing a role in Lewy-body formation (PubMed:11590439, PubMed:11431533, PubMed:19229105, PubMed:11590439, PubMed:15728840). Mediates monoubiquitination of BCL2, thereby acting as a positive regulator of autophagy (PubMed:20889974). Promotes the autophagic degradation of dysfunctional depolarized mitochondria (mitophagy) by promoting the ubiquitination of mitochondrial proteins such as TOMM20, RHOT1/MIRO1 and USP30 (PubMed:19029340, PubMed:19966284, PubMed:23620051, PubMed:24896179, PubMed:25527291). Preferentially assembles 'Lys-6'-, 'Lys-11'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains following mitochondrial damage, leading to mitophagy (PubMed:25621951). Mediates 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination of ZNF746, followed by degradation of ZNF746 by the proteasome; possibly playing a role in the regulation of neuron death (PubMed:21376232). Limits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Regulates cyclin-E during neuronal apoptosis. In collaboration with CHPF isoform 2, may enhance cell viability and protect cells from oxidative stress (PubMed:22082830). Independently of its ubiquitin ligase activity, protects from apoptosis by the transcriptional repression of p53/TP53 (PubMed:19801972). May protect neurons against alpha synuclein toxicity, proteasomal dysfunction, GPR37 accumulation, and kainate-induced excitotoxicity (PubMed:11439185). May play a role in controlling neurotransmitter trafficking at the presynaptic terminal and in calcium-dependent exocytosis. May represent a tumor suppressor gene.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm, cytosol. Nucleus. Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondrion. Note=Mainly localizes in the cytosol. Co-localizes with SYT11 in neutrites. Co-localizes with SNCAIP in brainstem Lewy bodies. Mitochondrial localization gradually increases with cellular growth. Also relocates to dysfunctional mitochondria that have lost the mitochondrial membrane potential; recruitment to mitochondria is PINK1- dependent|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in the brain including the substantia nigra. Expressed in heart, testis and skeletal muscle Expression is down-regulated or absent in tumor biopsies, and absent in the brain of PARK2 patients. Overexpression protects dopamine neurons from kainate-mediated apoptosis. Found in serum (at protein level).|
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Parkinson is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimers. About 1 percent of people over the age of 65 and 3 percent of people over the age of 75 are affected by the disease. The mutation is the most common cause of Parkinson disease identified to date. The function of Park2 is not well-known; however, it may play a role in the ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic pathway. Mutations in this gene are known to cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism. Alternative splicing of this gene produces three known products of undetermined function.
Kumru, H., et al., Ann. Neurol. 56(4):599-603 (2004).Pigullo, S., et al., Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 10(6):357-362 (2004).Yao, D., et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101(29):10810-10814 (2004).West, A.B., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 279(28):28896-28902 (2004).Wang, F., et al., Genes Chromosomes Cancer 40(2):85-96 (2004).
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