|Other Names||Serine/threonine-protein kinase ATR, Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein, FRAP-related protein 1, ATR, FRP1|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP8047b was selected from the C-term region of human ATR . A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon genotoxic stresses such as ionizing radiation (IR), ultraviolet light (UV), or DNA replication stalling, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates BRCA1, CHEK1, MCM2, RAD17, RPA2, SMC1 and p53/TP53, which collectively inhibit DNA replication and mitosis and promote DNA repair, recombination and apoptosis. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX/H2AFX at sites of DNA damage, thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Required for FANCD2 ubiquitination. Critical for maintenance of fragile site stability and efficient regulation of centrosome duplication.|
|Cellular Location||Nucleus. Nucleus, PML body Chromosome. Note=Depending on the cell type, it can also be found in PML nuclear bodies. Recruited to chromatin during S-phase. Redistributes to discrete nuclear foci upon DNA damage, hypoxia or replication fork stalling|
|Tissue Location||Ubiquitous, with highest expression in testis. Isoform 2 is found in pancreas, placenta and liver but not in heart, testis and ovary.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
The protein encoded by this gene belongs the PI3/PI4-kinase family, and is most closely related to ATM, a protein kinase encoded by the gene mutated in ataxia telangiectasia. This protein and ATM share similarity with Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad3, a cell cycle checkpoint gene required for cell cycle arrest and DNA damage repair in response to DNA damage. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate checkpoint kinase CHK1, checkpoint proteins RAD17, and RAD9, as well as tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. Mutations of this gene are associated with Seckel syndrome. An alternatively spliced transcript variant of this gene has been reported, however, its full length nature is not known. Transcript variants utilizing alternative polyA sites exist.
Blume-Jensen P, et al. Nature 2001. 411: 355.Cantrell D, J. Cell Sci. 2001. 114: 1439.Jhiang S Oncogene 2000. 19: 5590.Manning G, et al. Science 2002. 298: 1912.Moller, D, et al. Am. J. Physiol. 1994. 266: C351-C359.Robertson, S. et al. Trends Genet. 2000. 16: 368.Robinson D, et al. Oncogene 2000. 19: 5548.Van der Ven, P, et al. Hum. Molec. Genet. 1993. 2: 1889.Vanhaesebroeck, B, et al. Biochem. J. 2000. 346: 561.Van Weering D, et al. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1998. 154: 271.
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