|Other Names||Serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1, Autophagy-related protein 1 homolog, ATG1, hATG1, Unc-51-like kinase 1, ULK1, KIAA0722|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP8104c was selected from the ULK1 region of human Autophagy APG1 (ULK1). A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in autophagy in response to starvation. Acts upstream of phosphatidylinositol 3- kinase PIK3C3 to regulate the formation of autophagophores, the precursors of autophagosomes. Part of regulatory feedback loops in autophagy: acts both as a downstream effector and negative regulator of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) via interaction with RPTOR. Activated via phosphorylation by AMPK and also acts as a regulator of AMPK by mediating phosphorylation of AMPK subunits PRKAA1, PRKAB2 and PRKAG1, leading to negatively regulate AMPK activity. May phosphorylate ATG13/KIAA0652 and RPTOR; however such data need additional evidences. Plays a role early in neuronal differentiation and is required for granule cell axon formation. May also phosphorylate SESN2 and SQSTM1 to regulate autophagy (PubMed:25040165).|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm, cytosol. Preautophagosomal structure. Note=Under starvation conditions, is localized to puncate structures primarily representing the isolation membrane that sequesters a portion of the cytoplasm resulting in the formation of an autophagosome|
|Tissue Location||Ubiquitously expressed. Detected in the following adult tissues: skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, brain, placenta, liver, kidney, and lung|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Macroautophagy is the major inducible pathway for the general turnover of cytoplasmic constituents in eukaryotic cells, it is also responsible for the degradation of active cytoplasmic enzymes and organelles during nutrient starvation. Macroautophagy involves the formation of double-membrane bound autophagosomes which enclose the cytoplasmic constituent targeted for degradation in a membrane bound structure, which then fuse with the lysosome (or vacuole) releasing a single-membrane bound autophagic bodies which are then degraded within the lysosome (or vacuole). Two human homologs of the yeast autophagy-specific kinase exist: ULK1(APG1) and ULK2. APG1 plays a critical role in regulating key elements of the autophagy pathway. APG1 stimulates autophagy, leading to autophagy-dependent restriction of cell growth and ultimately cell apoptosis at high levels of activity, and is a negative regulator of mTOR signaling.
Scott, R., et al., Current Biology 17: 1-11 (2007).Kuroyanagi, H., et al., Genomics 51(1):76-85 (1998).
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