|Other Names||Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase, Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2, eIF-2A protein kinase 2, Interferon-inducible RNA-dependent protein kinase, P1/eIF-2A protein kinase, Protein kinase RNA-activated, PKR, Protein kinase R, Tyrosine-protein kinase EIF2AK2, p68 kinase, EIF2AK2, PKR, PRKR|
|Target/Specificity||The synthetic peptide sequence used to generate the antibody AP8151a was selected from the N-term region of human PRKR. A 10 to 100 fold molar excess to antibody is recommended. Precise conditions should be optimized for a particular assay.|
|Format||The synthetic peptide was lyophilized with 100% acetonitrile and is supplied as a powder. Reconstitute with 0.1 ml deionized water for a final concentration of 1 mg/ml.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||IFN-induced dsRNA-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a key role in the innate immune response to viral infection and is also involved in the regulation of signal transduction, apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation. Exerts its antiviral activity on a wide range of DNA and RNA viruses including hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), measles virus (MV) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HHV-1). Inhibits viral replication via phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2S1), this phosphorylation impairs the recycling of EIF2S1 between successive rounds of initiation leading to inhibition of translation which eventually results in shutdown of cellular and viral protein synthesis. Also phosphorylates other substrates including p53/TP53, PPP2R5A, DHX9, ILF3, IRS1 and the HHV-1 viral protein US11. In addition to serine/threonine-protein kinase activity, also has tyrosine-protein kinase activity and phosphorylates CDK1 at 'Tyr-4' upon DNA damage, facilitating its ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation. Either as an adapter protein and/or via its kinase activity, can regulate various signaling pathways (p38 MAP kinase, NF-kappa-B and insulin signaling pathways) and transcription factors (JUN, STAT1, STAT3, IRF1, ATF3) involved in the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs. Activates the NF-kappa-B pathway via interaction with IKBKB and TRAF family of proteins and activates the p38 MAP kinase pathway via interaction with MAP2K6. Can act as both a positive and negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathway (ISP). Negatively regulates ISP by inducing the inhibitory phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) at 'Ser- 312' and positively regulates ISP via phosphorylation of PPP2R5A which activates FOXO1, which in turn up-regulates the expression of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2). Can regulate NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and the activation of NLRP3, NLRP1, AIM2 and NLRC4 inflammasomes. Can trigger apoptosis via FADD-mediated activation of CASP8. Plays a role in the regulation of the cytoskeleton by binding to gelsolin (GSN), sequestering the protein in an inactive conformation away from actin.|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Nucleus. Cytoplasm, perinuclear region. Note=Nuclear localization is elevated in acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), melanoma, breast, colon, prostate and lung cancer patient samples or cell lines as well as neurocytes from advanced Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients|
|Tissue Location||Highly expressed in thymus, spleen and bone marrow compared to non-hematopoietic tissues such as small intestine, liver, or kidney tissues. Colocalizes with GSK3B and TAU in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain. Elevated levels seen in breast and colon carcinomas,and which correlates with tumor progression and invasiveness or risk of progression|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
Interferon-induced, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PRKR) is a serine-threonine kinase. Activation by dsRNAs leads to autophosphorylation of PRKR and allows the kinase to phosphorylate its natural substrate, the alpha subunit of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor-2 (EIF2-alpha), leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis. Human gamma-interferon (IFNG) mRNA exploits localized activation of PRKR in the cell to regulate its own translation. IFNG mRNA activates PRKR through a pseudoknot in its 5-prime untranslated region. The HCV envelope protein E2 contains a sequence identical with phosphorylation sites of the interferon-inducible protein kinase PRKR and the translation initiation factor EIF2-alpha, a target of PRKR. E2 inhibits the kinase activity of PRKR and blocks its inhibitory effect on protein synthesis and cell growth, which provides one mechanism by which HCV may circumvent the antiviral effect of interferon. PRKR, which is involved in TLR signaling and mediates apoptosis in fibroblasts in response to viral infection and inflammatory cytokines, also activates IKK and NFKB, thereby suppressing apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by live pathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria requirs both TLR4 and PRKR, possibly representing a major mechanism for pathogenic bacteria that use specific virulence factors to avoid detection and destruction by the innate immune system. Roles for PRKR activation in Huntington disease and Fanconi anemia have also been suggested.
Peel, A.L., et al., Neurobiol. Dis. 14(1):52-62 (2003).Pang, Q., et al., J. Biol. Chem. 277(51):49638-49643 (2002).Kim, S.H., et al., Oncogene 21(57):8741-8748 (2002).Takizawa, T., et al., Eur. J. Biochem. 269(24):6126-6132 (2002).Peters, G.A., et al., J. Virol. 76(21):11054-11064 (2002).
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