|Other Accession||P04610, P04608, P69698, P12506, P04609|
|Calculated MW||1559.84 Da|
|Other Names||Protein Tat, Transactivating regulatory protein, TAT|
|Format||Peptides are lyophilized in a solid powder format. Peptides can be reconstituted in solution using the appropriate buffer as needed.|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C.|
|Precautions||This product is for research use only. Not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Function||Nuclear transcriptional activator of viral gene expression, that is essential for viral transcription from the LTR promoter and replication. Acts as a sequence-specific molecular adapter, directing components of the cellular transcription machinery to the viral RNA to promote processive transcription elongation by the RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) complex, thereby increasing the level of full-length transcripts. In the absence of Tat, the RNA Pol II generates short or non-processive transcripts that terminate at approximately 60 bp from the initiation site. Tat associates with the CCNT1/cyclin-T1 component of the P-TEFb complex (CDK9 and CCNT1), which promotes RNA chain elongation. This binding increases Tat's affinity for a hairpin structure at the 5'-end of all nascent viral mRNAs referred to as the transactivation responsive RNA element (TAR RNA) and allows Tat/P- TEFb complex to bind cooperatively to TAR RNA. The CDK9 component of P-TEFb and other Tat-activated kinases hyperphosphorylate the C-terminus of RNA Pol II that becomes stabilized and much more processive. Other factors such as HTATSF1/Tat-SF1, SUPT5H/SPT5, and HTATIP2 are also important for Tat's function. Besides its effect on RNA Pol II processivity, Tat induces chromatin remodeling of proviral genes by recruiting the histone acetyltransferases (HATs) CREBBP, EP300 and PCAF to the chromatin. This also contributes to the increase in proviral transcription rate, especially when the provirus integrates in transcriptionally silent region of the host genome. To ensure maximal activation of the LTR, Tat mediates nuclear translocation of NF-kappa-B. In this purpose, it activates EIF2AK2/PKR which, in turns, may phosphorylate and target to degradation the inhibitor IkappaB- alpha which normally retains NF-kappa-B in the cytoplasm of unstimulated cells. Through its interaction with TBP, Tat may be involved in transcription initiation as well. Interacts with the cellular capping enzyme RNGTT to mediate co-transcriptional capping of viral mRNAs. Tat protein exerts as well a positive feedback on the translation of its cognate mRNA. Tat can reactivate a latently infected cell by penetrating in it and transactivating its LTR promoter. In the cytoplasm, Tat is thought to act as a translational activator of HIV-1 mRNAs (By similarity).|
|Cellular Location||Host nucleus, host nucleolus. Host cytoplasm. Secreted. Note=Probably localizes to both nuclear and nucleolar compartments. Nuclear localization is mediated through the interaction of the nuclear localization signal with importin KPNB1. Secretion occurs through a Golgi-independent pathway. Tat is released from infected cells to the extracellular space where it remains associated to the cell membrane, or is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and sera. Extracellular Tat can be endocytosed by surrounding uninfected cells via binding to several receptors depending on the cell type (By similarity)|
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