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Frequently Asked Questions

For your convenience, we have grouped frequently asked questions (FAQ) by subject. Please click on the question for more pertinent information or click on the “plus” icon to view all answers in the related subcject.

  • General Questions
    What are the advantages of the use of polyclonal antibodies?
    Polyclonal antibodies will recognize a mixture of different epitopes that will react with splicing variants or the target protein, under native or denaturing conditions.
    What are the advantages of monoclonal antibodies?
    Monoclonal antibodies recognize only one epitope, leading to very specific recognition of the target protein. This is very useful ecific applications such as immunostaining and immunoprecipitation. In addition, a hybridoma can be cultured indefinitely by collection of the supernatant.
    What are the advantages of monoclonal?
    Animal size will determine the amount of serum to be generated. A host that is genetically farthest from the source of antigen is considered the best, with the exception of the use of a synthetic peptide as an immunogen.
  • Immunogen preparation & immunization
    What can be used as immunogen?
    Recombinant proteins, short synthetic peptides, inactivated viral particles or other large molecules can be used as immunogen for antibody production (including whole cells, compounds, DNA).
    How much antigen is required for immunization?
    It depends on the size of the host animal and the antigen’s immunogenicity. In general, 500 ug of peptide per animal or 400 ug of recombinant protein per animal is acceptable. Lower amounts may be acceptable for immunogens with high immunogenicity.
    How should I submit my immunogen?
    Recombinant proteins can be suspended in PBS. Low concentrations of urea, SDS, imidazole, guanidine, non-ionic detergents or polyacrylamide are acceptable to keep protein soluble. Avoid contents harmful to animals such as sodium azide. Suspension of insoluble proteins can be used as immunogen. Proteins lyophilized from the same buffers are acceptable.
    How are immunogens prepared before injection?
    The use of complete freund’s adjuvant (CFA) for primary injection, and incomplete freund’s adjuvant (IFA) for boosting injections is most common.
    Can peptides be used directly for injection?
    Synthetic peptides are generally too short with an approximate molecular weight of 1kDa. Typically, the peptide is conjugated to a larger molecule such as BSA or KLH to increase immunogenicity.
  • Antibody related services and products
    Do you offer blocking peptides?
    Yes. All custom antibody projects using synthetic peptides as immunogen include 5mg of purified peptide that can be used as blocking peptide, or capturing agent in ELISA.
    Do you offer custom made antibody services?
    Yes. We have a variety of antibody production packages tailored specifically for your research needs.
    Do you offer testing services for Western Blot or
    Immunofluorescence applications?
    Yes. We offer a wide range of additional antibody related services (WB, IF, IHC etc.) including biochemical characterization, recombinant antibody production and antibody sequencing. For our services portfolio description, please visit our website.
  • Antibody production
    What is the concentration of the specific polyclonal antibodies in the rabbit serum?
    In general, specific antibodies in sera vary between 0.05-0.2 mg/ml. It can reach 1-3 mg/ml of specific antibodies in strong immune responses.
    How will you purify my antibody?
    Antibodies can be purified by affinity purification using the immunizing peptide or protein. We can also use protein A/G for purification, which will collect all Ig molecules in the serum.
    Do you offer antibody labeling?
    Yes. We can custom label antibodies with detection dyes or other moieties. You can supply the labeling agent and/or method, or we can source them.
  • Antibody storage and shipment
    Do you add preservatives to the antibody?
    Not usually, but it can be added upon request.
    Do you add carrier proteins to the antibody?
    Not usually, but BSA or other carrier can be added upon request.
    How do you store the antibodies?
    Antisera should be stored at -20°C, or at -80°C for long term storage. Purified antibodies are stable at 40°C when preservatives such as sodium azide are present. Alternatively, antisera can be stored -20°C for long term storage. Avoid freeze-thaw cycles.
    How do you ship antibodies?
    Antibodies are normally shipped with blue ice or ice packs at 40°C.
  • Pricing and payments
    What is the general pricing for custom antibody production?
    Abgent offers comprehensive custom antibody production; price varies depending on your projects’ requirements.
    Please contact us at or call 858-875-1900. You can find our distributors in your region for pricing at