|Application ||WB, IHC, E|
|Other Accession||NP_660183, 29108|
|Calculated MW||21627 Da|
|Other Names||Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD, hASC, Caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 5, PYD and CARD domain-containing protein, Target of methylation-induced silencing 1, PYCARD, ASC, CARD5, TMS1|
|Format||0.5 mg IgG/ml in Tris saline (20mM Tris pH7.3, 150mM NaCl), 0.02% sodium azide, with 0.5% bovine serum albumin|
|Storage||Maintain refrigerated at 2-8°C for up to 6 months. For long term storage store at -20°C in small aliquots to prevent freeze-thaw cycles.|
|Precautions||Goat Anti-ASC / TMS1 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.|
|Synonyms||ASC, CARD5, TMS1|
|Function||Functions as key mediator in apoptosis and inflammation. Promotes caspase-mediated apoptosis involving predominantly caspase-8 and also caspase-9 in a probable cell type-specific manner. Involved in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, promotes caspase-8-dependent proteolytic maturation of BID independently of FADD in certain cell types and also mediates mitochondrial translocation of BAX and activates BAX-dependent apoptosis coupled to activation of caspase-9, -2 and -3. Involved in macrophage pyroptosis, a caspase-1-dependent inflammatory form of cell death and is the major constituent of the ASC pyroptosome which forms upon potassium depletion and rapidly recruits and activates caspase-1. In innate immune response believed to act as an integral adapter in the assembly of the inflammasome which activates caspase-1 leading to processing and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. The function as activating adapter in different types of inflammasomes is mediated by the pyrin and CARD domains and their homotypic interactions. Required for recruitment of caspase-1 to inflammasomes containing certain pattern recognition receptors, such as NLRP2, NLRP3, AIM2 and probably IFI16. In the NLRP1 and NLRC4 inflammasomes seems not be required but facilitates the processing of procaspase-1. In cooperation with NOD2 involved in an inflammasome activated by bacterial muramyl dipeptide leading to caspase-1 activation. May be involved in DDX58-triggered proinflammatory responses and inflammasome activation. Isoform 2 may have a regulating effect on the function as inflammasome adapter. Isoform 3 seems to inhibit inflammasome- mediated maturation of interleukin-1 beta. In collaboration with AIM2 which detects cytosolic double-stranded DNA may also be involved in a caspase-1-independent cell death that involves caspase-8. In adaptive immunity may be involved in maturation of dendritic cells to stimulate T-cell immunity and in cytoskeletal rearrangements coupled to chemotaxis and antigen uptake may be involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor DOCK2; the latter function is proposed to involve the nuclear form. Also involved in transcriptional activation of cytokines and chemokines independent of the inflammasome; this function may involve AP-1, NF-kappa-B, MAPK and caspase-8 signaling pathways. For regulation of NF-kappa-B activating and inhibiting functions have been reported. Modulates NF-kappa-B induction at the level of the IKK complex by inhibiting kinase activity of CHUK and IKBK. Proposed to compete with RIPK2 for association with CASP1 thereby down-regulating CASP1-mediated RIPK2-dependent NF-kappa-B activation and activating interleukin-1 beta processing. Modulates host resistance to DNA virus infection, probably by inducing the cleavage of and inactivating CGAS in presence of cytoplasmic double-stranded DNA (PubMed:28314590).|
|Cellular Location||Cytoplasm. Endoplasmic reticulum. Mitochondrion. Nucleus. Note=Upstream of caspase activation, a redistribution from the cytoplasm to the aggregates occurs. These appear as hollow, perinuclear spherical, ball-like structures Upon NLRP3 inflammasome activation redistributes to the perinuclear space localizing to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Localized primarily to the nucleus in resting monocytes/macrophages and rapidly redistributed to the cytoplasm upon pathogen infection. Localized to large cytoplasmic aggregate appearing as a speck containing AIM2, PYCARD, CASP8 and bacterial DNA after infection with Francisella tularensis (By similarity)|
|Tissue Location||Widely expressed at low levels. Detected in peripheral blood leukocytes, lung, small intestine, spleen, thymus, colon and at lower levels in placenta, liver and kidney Very low expression in skeletal muscle, heart and brain. Expressed in lung epithelial cells (at protein level) (PubMed:23229815) Detected in the leukemia cell lines HL-60 and U-937, but not in Jurkat T-cell lymphoma and Daudi Burkitt's lymphoma. Detected in the melanoma cell line WM35, but not in WM793. Not detected in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells and MOLT-4 lymphocytic leukemia cells.|
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Provided below are standard protocols that you may find useful for product applications.
This gene encodes an adaptor protein that is composed of two protein-protein interaction domains: a N-terminal PYRIN-PAAD-DAPIN domain (PYD) and a C-terminal caspase-recruitment domain (CARD). The PYD and CARD domains are members of the six-helix bundle death domain-fold superfamily that mediates assembly of large signaling complexes in the inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways via the activation of caspase. In normal cells, this protein is localized to the cytoplasm; however, in cells undergoing apoptosis, it forms ball-like aggregates near the nuclear periphery. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
Activation of ASC induces apoptosis or necrosis, depending on the cell type, and causes tumor eradication. Motani K, et al. Cancer Sci, 2010 Aug. PMID 20500518.
Epigenetic alterations in disseminated neuroblastoma tumour cells: influence of TMS1 gene hypermethylation in relapse risk in NB patients. Grau E, et al. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol, 2010 Sep. PMID 20140741.
Kinetic properties of ASC protein aggregation in epithelial cells. Cheng J, et al. J Cell Physiol, 2010 Mar. PMID 20020448.
A splice variant of ASC regulates IL-1beta release and aggregates differently from intact ASC. Matsushita K, et al. Mediators Inflamm, 2009. PMID 19759850.
Structure and interdomain dynamics of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC). de Alba E. J Biol Chem, 2009 Nov 20. PMID 19759015.
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